Synanceia verrucosa   Bloch & Schneider,  1801 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 30-40 cm; common length 27.0 cm TL (male/unsexed).

Max. published weight: 2,400 gm.

Color: Grayish brown with a broad transverse pale band from base of dorsal to soft anal and sometimes another below spinous dorsal and with scattered irregular lighter markings. Dorsal and anal brownish with irregular light areas, edges of fins whitish. Caudal whitish with broad basal and submarginal brown transverse bands, tips of rays white. Ventral brown with irregular white stripes and spots.

Head 2.3-2.6 in standard length, 2.7-3.0 in total length. Depth of body 2.3-2.7 in standard length, 2.6-3.1 in total length. Eye diameter 9.5-13.0 in head, 2.7-3.6 in snout and 3.0-4.0 in interorbital space. Mouth directed upwards. Teeth in villiform bands in jaws; vomer and palatines edentulous. Preorbital with two spines flaring outwards. A small deep groove below eye. Interorbital space with a deep pit. A deep pit behind each eye, the pits on either side separated by bony elevation. Origin of dorsal fin above hind border of preopercle. First spine of dorsal fin as long as snout; fourth or fifth spine longest, equal to snout and eye together; posterior spines slightly shorter. Third anal spine longer than the other two, equal to first spine of dorsal. Soft dorsal rays equal to snout and eye together or a little longer, those of anal slightly shorter. Pectoral fin rounded, its base oblique; upper edge of base to tip of the fin equal to head without snout or slightly longer. Ventral fin slightly shorter than pectoral. Sides of head with short papillae, body and tail with numerous fleshy excrescences.The dorsal fin has 2 grooves. Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: XIII, 6-7; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: III, 6; number of rays in the pectoral fin: 18-19; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: I, 5.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Scorpaena brachion Lacepede, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Synanceia brachio Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Synanceia horrida (non Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misapplied name)
Synanceichthys verrucosa (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Synanceichthys verrucosus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Synancidium horridum (non Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misapplied name)
Synaceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Synanceja verrucosa Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Synanceia verrucosa Day, 1878
Scorpaena brachio Lacepede, 1802
Synanceia brachio Bleeker, 1849
Synanceia verrucosa Gunther, 1860
Synanceichthys verrucosus Bleeker, 1863
Synanceja verrucosa Klunzinger, 1870
Synanceia brachio Le Juge, 1871
Synanceia verrucosa Day, 1875
Synanceia verrucosa Bleeker, 1879
Synanceja verrucosa Klunzinger, 1884
Synanceia verrucosa Sauvage, 1891
Synanceia verrucosa Garman, 1903
Synanceia verrucosa Seale, 1906
Synanceja verrucosa Jordan and Seale, 1906
Synanceja verrucosa Fowler, 1928
Synanceichthys verrucosus Whitley, 1932
Synanceja verrucosa Matsubara, 1943
Synanceja verrucosa J. L. B. Smith, 1950
Synanceia verrucosa Herre, 1952
Synancejia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Synancia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Common Name (s)
• Stone Fish (English)
• Reef Stonefish (English)
• Dornorn (English)
• Chetta Chammam (Malayalam)
• Peychan (Malayalam)
• Gauviha Mas (Mahl)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium.
World's most venomous fish. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Sandy
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes and crustaceans


• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Beaufort, LF and Briggs, JC (1962) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Pataudi House, Daryaganj, New Delhi 11 481 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-19

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