Strongylura leiura   (Bleeker,  1850) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Beloniformes
Family:Belonidae

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Description
Max. size: 100.0 cm TL

Color: Body greenish brown above, silvery below; a silvery lateral band on the body which becomes wide posteriorly where it is bordered by a dark stripe. Fins yellow, caudal fin dusky.

Body shape eel-like, laterally compressed. Small eyes having diameter nearly 1/3rd of postorbital part of head. Teeth are directed backwards. Vomerine teeth are absent. Origin of dorsal fin over 7th-10th ray of anal fin, dorsal fin rays 17-21, anal fin rays 23-25. Caudal peduncle without lateral keels, caudal fin emarginate. Predorsal scales moderately small, 130-180. Caudal fin sub truncate. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 21, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 23 - 25.

Oviparous, dioecious, external fertilization. Nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface.


Synonym (s)
Belone tenuirostris Blyth, 1859
Belone ciconia Richardson, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Belone ferox Gunther, 1866
(Junior synonym)
Belone leiurus Bleeker, 1850
(Senior synonym)
Belone natalensis Gunther, 1866
(Junior synonym)
Belone tenuirostris Blyth, 1858
(Junior synonym)
Rhaphiobelone dammermani Fowler, 1934
(Junior synonym)
Strongylura leiura (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Strongylura leiura leiura (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Tylosurus leiurus (Bleeker, 1850)
(Senior synonym)
Belone leira Bleeker, 1850
(Misspelling)
Strongylura leiyra (Bleeker, 1850)
(Misspelling)
Strongylurus leiura (Bleeker, 1850)
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Square Tail Needle Fish (English)
• Banded Needle Fish (English)
• Square-tail alligator gar (English)
• Valaya mural
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, finfish, bony fish
Predator:  Haliaeetus vocifer

Biogeography


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• INDIA
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Harris, SA and Cyrus, DP (1995) Occurrence of fish larvae in the St Lucia estuary, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa South African Journal of Marine Science 16 333 - 350 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Frantisek, M and Ali, AH (2005) Two new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from needlefishes (Belonidae) in Iraq, with a key to Philometra spp. parasitic in the host's subcutaneous tissue, fins and musculature Folia Parasitologica (Ceske Budejovice) 52(3) 267-273 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Frantisek, M and Ali, AH (2005) Two new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from needlefishes (Belonidae) in Iraq, with a key to Philometra spp. parasitic in the host's subcutaneous tissue, fins and musculature Folia Parasitologica (Ceske Budejovice) 52(3) 267-273 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, JS and Thivakaran, GA (2009) Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India Journal of Ocean University of China Springer 8(3) 233-240 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-009-0233-3
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-09

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