Stolephorus indicus   (van Hasselt,  1823) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Clupeiformes
Family:Engraulidae

Image copyrights: Gloerfelt-Tarp, T.

Description
Size: Maximum 15.5 cm SL; common to 12 cm

Color: Body light transparent fleshy brown, with silver stripe down flank. No dark pigment lines on back between head and dorsal fin.

Body slender, elongate, subcylindrical in cross-section. Belly with 2 to 6 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or only just beyond front border of pre-operculum. Hind border of pre-operculum convex, rounded. Isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward to hind border of branchial membrane. Maxillary broadened above mandibular joint, reaching to frontborder of praeoperculum. Dorsal about midway between end of snout and end of caudal, its origin much nearer to base of caudal than to point of snout, far behind origin of ventrals. Anal 5 2/3 - 6 in length, about as long as head without snout, its origin below the middle of dorsal. Ventrals a little longer than eye, their midway between anal and base of pectorals. Pectorals about as long as postocular part of head, not reaching ventrals. Caudal deeply incised, 4 1/5- 4 2/5 in length. About 20 slightly flattened gillrakers with a series of fine spinules at the innerside, ΒΌ shorter than branchial filaments, a little longer than half eye. Scales thin, very deciduous, smooth, rounded behind. Four to 5 abdominal scutes between pectorals and ventrals.Pelvic fin tips not reaching to dorsal fin origin. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 18-21.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers.


Synonym (s)
Anchoviella indica Misra, 1976
Engraulis brownii (non Gmelin, 1789)
(Misapplied)
Engraulis carpenteriae (non De Vis, 1882)
(Misapplied)
Engrulis indica Van Hasselt, 1823
Engrulis indicus Day, 1878
Stolephorus indicus Whitehead, 1973
Anchoviella indica (van Hasselt, 1823)
(Senior synonym)
Anchoviella indicus (van Hasselt, 1823)
(Senior synonym)
Anchoviella scitula Fowler, 1911
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis albus Swainson, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis balinensis Bleeker, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis indicus van Hasselt, 1823
(Senior synonym)
Engraulis russellii Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis samaminan Montrouzier, 1857
(Junior synonym)
Stolephorus extensus Jordan & Seale, 1926
(Junior synonym)
Stolephorus indicus nanus Hardenberg, 1933
(Junior synonym)
Stolephorus insularis (non Hardenberg, 1933)
(Misapplied name)
Stolephorus insularum Jordan & Seale, 1926
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis indicus van Hasselt, 1823
Engraulis indica van Hasselt, 1823
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Zooroo Cartdarh
• Conetholi (Malayalam)
• Dindus (Marathi)
• Nattoo (Telugu)
• Indian Anchovy (English)
• Bada Chauli
• Nethili
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed dried and salted, make fish sauce, fish meal and fish ball)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Nekton, zoobenthos, zooplankton
Predator:  Saurida tumbil

Biogeography


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• MYANMAR
• INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Kerala INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 17.5) (Long: 89.66) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 49 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at - http://www.iobis.org/
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Kuo, RS and Shao, KT (1999) Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan Zoological Studies 38(4) 391-404 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hajisamae, S; Chou, LM and Ibrahim, S (2004) Feeding habits and trophic relationships of fishes utilizing an impacted coastal habitat, Singapore Hydrobiologia 520 61-71 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Rajasegar, M and Sendhilkumar, R (2009) Finfish Resources of Karaikal,South East Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1 (4) 330-332 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1%284%2909/13.pdf
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Brinda, S; Srinivasan, M and Balakrishnan, S (2010) Studies on Diversity of Fin Fish Larvae in Vellar Estuary, Southeast Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (1) 44-50 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms2%281%2910/9.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Whitehead, PJP (1972) A synopsis of the clupeoid fishes of India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 14(1) 160-256 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, JS and Thivakaran, GA (2009) Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India Journal of Ocean University of China Springer 8(3) 233-240 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-009-0233-3
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tike, MJ; Samant, JS; Mohite, SA (2009) Diversity status of minor fish and shellfish along Malvan coast, Maharshtra Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, India 24(2) 441-448 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Indian_J_Appl_Pure_Biol_24_441.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-02-01

Back to Search