Synapta maculata   (Chamisso & Eysenhardt,  1821) (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Apodida
Family:Synaptidae

Image copyrights: David Harasti

Description
Length: 2 m

Color: It is tan to brown in color with black markings.

Body is long and snake-like. It shovels sand into the mouth with its relatively large tentacles. Tentacles 15. Tentacles are seen to be in active movement during feeding. Spicules consisting of huge anchors with anchor plates, arm and base of anchor smooth, anchor plates quadrangular with a number of large smooth holes. The whole body surface has small white rings which are closely arranged.

It crawls along by holding on to solid objects; It shovels sand into the mouth with its relatively large pinnate tentacles. The tentacles are seen to be in active moment during feeding. It crawls along by holding on to solid objects by its anchors.


Synonym (s)
Holothuria maculata Chamisso and Eysenhardt, 1821
Synapta maculata Clark and Rowe, 1971
Fistularia doreyana Quoy & Gaimard, 1834
Holothuria (Fistularia) oceanica Lesson, 1830
Holothuria maculata Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821
Oncinolabes fuscescans Brandt, 1835
Synapta agassizii Selenka, 1867
Synapta astrolabi Held, 1857
Synapta beselii Jaeger, 1833
Synapta mammillosa Eschscholtz, 1829

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• SRI LANKA (Record: 1971)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tikader, BK and Das, AK (1985) Glimpses of animal life of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, Kolkata 1-170 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Samyn, Y; VandenSpiegel, D and Massin, C (2005) Sea cucumbers of the Comoros Archipelago SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 14-18
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, DB (2001) Twenty sea cucumbers from seas around India Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 24(1 & 2) 4-8 Available at - http://www.worldfishcenter.org/Naga/Naga24-1&2/pdf/features.pdf
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at - http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/BDM/22/Terney.pdf
  • Scuba equipment USA - Marine species gallery Available at - http://www.scuba-equipment-usa.com/marine/index.html
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • James, DB. (1983) Sea cucumber and sea urchin resources and Beche-de-mer industry Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 85-93 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/809/1/Bulletin_No_34.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Das, AK and Roy, MKD (1989) A general account of the mangrove fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fauna of conservation areas Zoological survey of India 1-152 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-09-02

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