Actinopyga miliaris   (Quoy & Gaimard,  1833) (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Aspidochirotida
Family:Holothuriidae

Image copyrights: Steven Purcell

Description
Size: Max length 35.0 cm TL (male); common length 25.0 cm TL (male); length ranges from 200 to 300 mm and width from 80 to 120 mm. Thickness of the body wall is about 8 mm.

Max. weight reported: 0.5-2 kg

Color: Uniformly black; mid brown surface with crached appearance like dried mud, sole white sharply demarcated from brown dorsal surface. Color of bivium black; trivium lighter, dark brown.

Specimens are normally robust, with pedicles arranged in three distinct rows ventrally. Body elongate, cylindrical, slightly arched dorsally (bivium) and flattened ventrally (trivium). Bivium covered by mucus and fine sediment. Papillae on bivium numerous, long and slender; long and thick podia on trivium arranged more or less regularly in tight rows on the radii; calcareous disc of podia around 700 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surround by 20 stout tentacles. Anus surrounded by 5 strong, triangular anal teeth. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Spicules on ventral tegument with variety of simple or more complicated x-shaped rosettes with dichotomous bifurcations and spinose rods; ventral and dorsal podia with some rosettes; podia and papillae containing large spicules; tentacles with large rods. It has three rows of tubefeet arranged on the ventral side sometimes dark brown.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders.

Gregarious in nature.


Synonym (s)
Holothuria miliaris Quoy & Gaimard, 1834
(Basionym)
Holothuria miliaris Quoy and Gaimard, 1833
Actinopyga miliaris Clark and Rowe, 1971
Actinopyga polymorpha Saville-Kent, 1890

Common Name (s)
• Blackfish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, Good quality beche-de-mer can be prepared from this species.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Russell, FE and Nagabhushanam, R (1996) Minor phyla in the venomous and poisonous marine invertebrates of the Indian Ocean 1-271 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sastry, DRK (2002) Echinodermata associated with coral reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Zoological Survey of India ZSI 100(3-4) 21-60 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Samyn, Y; VandenSpiegel, D and Massin, C (2005) Sea cucumbers of the Comoros Archipelago SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 14-18
  • Riaz, A and Skewes, T (2005) Resource assessment of the holothurian populations in the Seychelles Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 21 19-21 Available at - http://www.spc.int/coastfish/News/BDM/21/BDM21.pdf
  • Martens, EE and De Clerck, GG (1994) Interstitial and parasitic Platyhelminthes from the coast of the Seychelles Oceanic reefs of the Seychelles: report on a cruise of RV Tyro to the Seychelles in 1992 and 1993 National Museum of Natural History, Leiden 97-106 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, DB (2001) Twenty sea cucumbers from seas around India Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 24(1 & 2) 4-8 Available at - http://www.worldfishcenter.org/Naga/Naga24-1&2/pdf/features.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at - http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/BDM/22/Terney.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • James, DB. (1983) Sea cucumber and sea urchin resources and Beche-de-mer industry Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 85-93 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/809/1/Bulletin_No_34.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Beche-de-mer resources of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 144-149 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • James, DB and James PSBR (1994) A hand-book on Indian sea-cucumbers CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI, Kochi, India 59 1-47 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3461/1/Special_Publication_No_59.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-23

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