Actinopyga echinites   (Jaeger,  1833) (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Aspidochirotida
Family:Holothuriidae

Image copyrights: FLMNH

Description
Size: Max length 35.0 cm TL (male); common length 20.0 cm TL (male); body thickness 0.7 cm

Max. weight reported: 1,000 g

Color: Bivium is brown, varying from light to dark among specimens; trivium lighter, sometime orange, with yellow podia.

The body is sub-cylindrical, Elongate with the ventral side flat. It is wider in the middle and slightly tapers at both the ends and has a slightly wrinckled surface. Body is arched dorsally (bivium) and flattened ventrally (trivium). Bivium sometimes wrinkled and covered by sediment; wider in the middle; tapering towards both ends. Papillae on bivium long and slender; podia on trivium arranged more or less regularly in 3 rows calcareous disc surrounded by 5 anal teeth. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow inter radial. Cuvierian tubules few (10); short, pink, and never expelled. Ventral tegument with a variety of small rosettes and rods, occasionally perforated; dorsal tegument with larger rosettes and branched plates; ventral podia with some straight, spinous rods; tentacles with rods large, straight, or curved, and very spiny at their extremities.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders. Sexual reproduction during the warm season. A species with a high potential fecundity and early sexual maturity.

It attaches itself to rocks with its tube feet.

It is endoparasitic.


Synonym (s)
Actinopyga mauritiana (non Quoy & Gaimard, 1833)
(Misapplied name)
Actinopyga plebeja (Selenka, 1867)
Muelleria echinites Jaeger, 1833
Muelleria plebeja Selenka, 1867
Actinopyga caroliniana Tan Tiu, 1981
Actinopyga echinites crassa Panning, 1944

Common Name (s)
• Deep Water Redfish (English)
• Paar Attai (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, used in the preparation of beche-de-mer)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 1977-1979)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Sastry, DRK (2002) Echinodermata associated with coral reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Zoological Survey of India ZSI 100(3-4) 21-60 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Samyn, Y; VandenSpiegel, D and Massin, C (2005) Sea cucumbers of the Comoros Archipelago SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 14-18
  • Riaz, A and Skewes, T (2005) Resource assessment of the holothurian populations in the Seychelles Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 21 19-21 Available at - http://www.spc.int/coastfish/News/BDM/21/BDM21.pdf
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, DB (2001) Twenty sea cucumbers from seas around India Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 24(1 & 2) 4-8 Available at - http://www.worldfishcenter.org/Naga/Naga24-1&2/pdf/features.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Rao, DVS; Rao, KS; Iyer, CSP and Chittibabu, P (2008) Possible ecological consequences from the Sethu Samudram Canal Project, India Marine Pollution Bulletin Elsevier 56(2) 170-186 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.10.018
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at - http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/BDM/22/Terney.pdf
  • Florida Museum of Natural History Available at - http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • George, KC; Thomas, PA; Appukuttan, KK and Gopakumar, G (1986) Ancillary living marine resources of Lakshadweep Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Cochin 68 46-50 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4386/1/Article_13.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • James, DB. (1983) Sea cucumber and sea urchin resources and Beche-de-mer industry Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 85-93 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/809/1/Bulletin_No_34.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Beche-de-mer resources of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 144-149 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Das, AK and Roy, MKD (1989) A general account of the mangrove fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fauna of conservation areas Zoological survey of India 1-152 Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-23

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