Secutor ruconius   (Hamilton,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Max. size : 8.0 cm TL

Color: Back bluish with about 10 vertical grayish bands extending to below lateral line, abdomen silvery, splashed with black dots, spinous dorsal membrane between second and fifth spines black in upper one-third portion and the rest of fin hyaline, other fins light blue, pectoral base with black spot; some black spots present along edge of gill opening. Body silvery, with about 10 black or grey vertical bands on the back extending to a little below the lateral line, anteriorly commencing below tip of nuchal spine and posteriorly extending upto end of soft dorsal. Abdomen with black pigment dots. A prominent black curved band from the lower margin of eye to posterior angle of lower jaw. Membrane between second to fifth dorsal spines black in the upper one-third portion. Soft dorsal, pectorals, ventrals, anal and caudal colourless. Inner side of base of pectoral black. Black spots are present along edge of lower half of gill opening from anterior base of pectoral.

Deep bodied and laterally compressed. Ventral profile more complex than dorsal profile. Head naked, with nuchal spine. Snout pointed, protracted mouth pointing upward, tip of maxilla reaching to about level of lower margin of eye. Lateral line ending about middle of soft dorsal fin. Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 8, Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 16, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 14. Body oval in shape, compressed, dorsal profile rising from snout with a concavity and is less convex than the ventral profile. Snout pointed. Interorbital space concave, bounded by two ridges which continue as the outer edges of nuchal spine. The median portion is elevated, about 2 in head. One small spine on head, immediately above eye and opposite its front border from where the ridge bounding the interorbital space commences. Mouth when protracted forms a tube directed upwards, gape of mouth opposite middle of eye and the tip of maxilla far in front of the front border of eye. Mouth small, lips broad and thin, lower lip smaller and broader than upper which is like a ring over the lower. Lower margin of lower jaw slightly concave, at right angles to mouth slit. Preopercle with an obtuse angle, its lower margin finely serrate. Teeth numerous, very small, in a villiform band, gill rakers long, delicate, sharp and bent at tips, each with about 22 small spines. Scales small, all over the body, including the breast. Lateral line convex from the beginning, runs less convex to dorsal profile and extends to base of caudal. Dorsal and anal spines compressed, weak, Ventrals with axillary scales, and their tips do not reach the origin of anal. Caudal deeply forked.

Dioecious, external fertilisation, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Chanda ruconius Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Equula ruconius Day, 1876
Secutor ruconius Talwar and Jhingran, 1991
Leiognathus ruconius (Weber & de Beaufort, 1931)
Secutor ruconius Fowler, 1927
Chanda ruconius Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Equula ruconia (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Equula ruconius (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Leiognathus ruconius (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Secutor ruconeus (Hamilton, 1822)

Common Name (s)
• Deep Pugnose Ponyfish (English)
• Deep-bodied Ponyfish (English)
• Kurichi (Kannada)
• Thakara Mullan (Malayalam)
• Jitaka (Marathi)
• Kap (Marathi)
• Karal (Tamil)
• Karah (Telugu)
• Guruku (Kannada)
• Mullan (Malayalam)
• Sudupunam Karal (Tamil)
• Kalikaral (Tamil)
• Namakaral (Tamil)
• Karaipodi (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen, also used to be fish meal for duck and chicken food)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, detritus, zooplankton, plants, benthic crustaceans, other benthic invertebrates, other planktonic invertebrates, phytoplanktons, planktonic crustaceans, shrimps, fish eggs/larvae, benthic algae/weeds, diatoms, dinoflagellates, mysids, planktonic copepods
Predator:  Saurida tumbil, Euthynnus affinis


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 19.66) (Long: 88.25) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 51 mts)
• Orissa, Gopalpur INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
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  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
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  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at -
  • James, PSBR (1975) A systematic review of the fishes of the family Leiognathidae Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 17 (1) 138-172 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus) Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-04

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