Toxopneustes pileolus   (Lamarck,  1816) (Sea Urchin)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Echinoidea
Order:Camarodonta
Family:Toxopneustidae

Image copyrights: David Harasti

Description
Size: Max length 15.0 cm WD (male)

Color: Large petaloid pedicelleriae pale pink with white rim, spines pinkish-maroon with white tips

Toxopneustid with only 3 pore pairs on each ambulacral plate as in Tripneustes but differs in having the pore pairs arranged in arcs, primary tubercle on every alternating ambulacral plate, large globiferous pedicellariae, and horizontal purple and light bands on the test.


Synonym (s)
Echinus pileolus Lamarck, 1816
Boletia heteropora L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846
Boletia pileolus (Lamarck, 1816)
Boletia polyzonalis (Lamarck, 1816)
Echinus polyzonalis Lamarck, 1816
Toxopneustes (Boletia) pileolus (Lamarck, 1816)
Toxopneustes chloracanthus H.L. Clark, 1912

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Coastal

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 1963-1970)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Sastry, DRK (2002) Echinodermata associated with coral reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Zoological Survey of India ZSI 100(3-4) 21-60 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • James, DB (1985) Echinoderm fauna of the proposed national park in the gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the Symposium on endangered marine animals and parks Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 1 403-406 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sastry, DRK (1991) Echinodermata: Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 363-397 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Scuba equipment USA - Marine species gallery Available at - http://www.scuba-equipment-usa.com/marine/index.html
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • James, DB (1985) Echinoderm fauna of the proposed National Marine Park in the Gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the symposium on endangered marine animals and marine parks Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 1 403-406 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/2360/1/Article_64.pdf
  • James, DB. (1983) Sea cucumber and sea urchin resources and Beche-de-mer industry Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 85-93 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/809/1/Bulletin_No_34.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-25

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