Siphonosoma australe   (Keferstein,  1865) (Marine Worm)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Sipunculidea

Trunk is 135 mm long, posteriorly tapering, thick and opaque-skinned, brown in color. Introvert is 70 mm long 32 rows of hooks with large, slightly curved, more or less pointed, dark brown in color, and 0.22 mm long and 0.07 mm wide at base. Tentacles are about 80 in number, long, slender and measuring 0.5-0.7 mm in length. Papillae are uniformly distributed all over the body, smaller in size and circular in surface view in midtrunk region whereas more prominent and dome shaped at posterior end. Papillae are more or less flat and circular in between hook rows.

Longitudinal muscle layer is separated in 15-17 bands, anastomising occasionally. Circular muscle layer is also divided into a number of anastomosing bands. Retractor muscles are two pairs (dorsal and ventral) and originate from different level of the anterior part of trunk. Contractile vessel is simple and running along dorsal surface of oesophagus up to first intestinal coil. Intestinal tract consists of 78 coils and anterior part of rectum is provided with a small caecum, while its anal part is attached to the body wall by wing muscles. Anal aperture lies in between the muscles 7-8 about 5 mm behind the nephridiopores. Spindle muscle arises anteriorly by three roots and anchors intestinal coil posteriorly. Nephridia are light brown, one-fourth as long as trunk and partially attached anteriorly. coelomic papillae and 'Keferstein bodies' are found in front of nephrostomes and anterior trunk region respectively. Transverse dissepiments are not observed.

Synonym (s)
Phascolosoma australe Keferstein, 1865
Siphonosoma australe Haldar, 1865
Siphonosoma australe australe (Keferstein, 1865)
(Senior synonym)
Siphonosoma australe takatsukii Sato, 1935
(Senior synonym)
Phascolosoma australe Keferstein, 1865
(Senior synonym)
Siphonosoma pescadolense Sato, 1939
(Junior synonym)
Siphonosoma takatsukii Sato, 1935
(Senior synonym)
Sipunculus aeneus Baird, 1868
(Junior synonym)
Sipunculus australis (Keferstein, 1865)
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Demersal


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Harbour INDIA (Record: 1970)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 21/09/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA (Record: 1927)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 1936)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Long Island INDIA (Record: 1976)

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Halder, BP (1991) Sipunculans of the Indian coast Memoirs of the Zoological survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 17(4) p 169 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Haldar, BP (1995) Sipuncula and Echiura Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 469-476 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -

Page last updated on:2010-10-11

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