Rhynchobatus djiddensis   Forsskal,  1775 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Dubosc, J

Max size: 310 cm TL; at birth: 43-60 cm TL

Color: Olive-green above, white below.

A large guitarfish with large black eyespots on the pectoral bases, a distinctive black cross between the eyes, and rows of small white spots on the upper body. Body depressed, snout elongate and pointed. Disc longer than wide. Head to hind margin of spiracle edge 4.3, snout 5.5, both to subcaudal origin. Spiracles large with two folds on hind margin. First dorsal origin opposite middle of base of ventral and nearer to base of caudal than to tip of snout. Second dorsal origin about twice nearer caudal than to insertion of first dorsal. A row of large tubercles directed backwards in front of eye, continued backwards near eye and spiracle; a median row of tubercles before dorsal and two short rows of tubercles on either side.

Dioecious, internal fertilization, internal live bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Rhinobatus maculata Ehrenberg, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Anonymous, 1955
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Fowler, 1941
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Herre, 1940
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Herre, 1953
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Misra, 1952
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Misra & Menon, 1958
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Munro, 1955
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Sarangdhar, 1942
Rhynchobatus adiddensis Smith, 1953
Rynchobatus djiddensis australiae Whitley, 1939
(Junior synonym)
Raja djiddensis Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Rhinchobatus djiddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhinobatus djiddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhynchobatus djeddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhynchobatus djiddenis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhynchobatus djidensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhyncobatis djeddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhyncobatus djeddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhyncobatus djiddensis (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Rhynchobatus djiddensis Day, 1878

Common Name (s)
• Whitespotted Shovelnose Gitarfish (English)
• Ranja (Marathi)
• Palunga (Tamil)
• Vela Meen (Tamil)
• Pal Uluvai (Tamil)
• Kiri Uluva (Tamil)
• Padangan (Tamil)
• Tipiulavi (Telugu)
• Nululavi (Telugu)
• Walawah Tenkee (Telugu)
• Buther Tiruke
• Guitar Fish (English)
• Plough Fish (English)
• White Spotted Shovelnose Ray (English)
• Bhuther (Gujarati)
• Dhons (Gujarati)
• Kasaj (Gujarati)
• Etti Baliar (Kannada)
• Lanj (Marathi)
• Pok (Marathi)
• Kachu Ulavai (Tamil)
• Padanagan (Tamil)
• Whitespotted Wedgefish (English)
• Giant Guitarfish (English)
• Etti - Batiar (Kannada)
• Varithalai (Malayalam)
• Kachu Uluvai (Tamil)
• Walawan - Tenkee (Telugu)
• Nululavi (Telugu)
• Sorhora (Oriya)
• Foal Magar (Bengali)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish and aquarium; smaller ones are eaten fresh. Large specimens are consumed fresh and dried salted)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Reef Associated, Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Crabs, lobsters, bivalves, small fishes and squids.
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Zanzibar TANZANIA
• North West Coast INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
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  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Elasmobranch Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-23

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