Rhina ancylostoma   Bloch and Schneider,  1801 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Size: 132-300 cm TL

Max. published weight: 135.0 kg

Color: Grey or brownish above, white below; numerous white spots dorsally on fins, body and tail; black spots on head and shoulders but no eyespots or ocelli.

Body depressed, snout very broad and semicircular in outline, caudal portion elongated. Head from tip of snout to spiracle 4.8 to subcaudal origin. Disc length 1.25 in its width. Spiracles large, without posterior folds and situated close behind eye. Teeth rounded, dental plates with median and lateral undulations. First dorsal opposite to ventrals and nearer to eyes than to caudal base. Origin of second dorsal midway between insertion of first dorsal and caudal base. Longitudinal rows of tubercles above eyes; a median row of tubercles along the back between spiracles and front of dorsal insertion and two short lateral rows of smaller tubercles on either side of the median row and a few small tubercles in front of eyes and below spiracles. A row of large spines present above the eye, on the center of the nape, and on the shoulder have a defensive function (can be used for butting).

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Rhina anclyostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Squatina ancyclostoma (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Rhina cyclostomus Swainson, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Rhina ancylostomus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Rhina ancylostoma Munro, 1955
Rhynchobatus ancylostomus Day, 1878
Rhina ancylostoma Schneider, 1801

Common Name (s)
• Bow Mouthed Guitarfish (English)
• Mud Skate (English)
• Sakshi (Marathi)
• Mun Ultava (Tamil)
• Thitha Mora (Tamil)
• Nella Dindi (Telugu)
• Pottila Sora (Telugu)
• Lanj (Marathi)
• Bowmouth Guitarfish (English)
• Bow-mouthed Angel fish
• Pulaman uluvai
• Pana Thorake (Kannada)
• Tiragati Dimma (Telugu)
• Pulaman Uluvai (Tamil)
• Bow-mouthed Angle Fish (English)
• Mud Shark (English)
• Guiter Fish (English)
• Dhons
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, utilized fresh and dried-salted; the pectoral fins are the only part which is eaten)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Unregulated fishery practices, habitat destruction and pollution)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans, mollusks
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Venkateswarlu, T and Rama Rao, KV (1986) Valid scientific names to Day's fish fauna of India Miscellaneous publication, occasional paper no 87 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI p 48 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Suppa, M; Suebsin, S; Suri, V and Songsirikul, T (1997) Checklist of fishes in Thailand Office of Environmental Policy and Planning 1-353 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6060/
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-21

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