Rastrelliger kanagurta   (Cuvier,  1816) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 25-39 cm.

Color: Body bluish-green tending towards gray above and yellow on belly and at sides, with about three grayish longitudinal stripes along upper half of body. A row of 16 irregular grayish blotches below the dorsal fin on the back and one blotch below base of pectoral. Dorsal fins yellow with tips and outer margin grayish. Pectoral yellow. Caudal yellow, dark along the margin and extremities. In larger specimens when fresh a few golden yellow bands present along and below lateral line and in small juveniles small round grayish dots along upper half of back.
Feeds on phytoplankton (diatoms) and small zooplankton (cladocerans, ostracods, larval polychaetes, etc.). Adult individuals feed on macroplankton such as larval shrimps and fish.

Head longer than body depth. Body laterally compressed. Snout pointed, eyes with thick adipose eyelids. Mouth large, oblique with deep cleft. Teeth small, in a single row in both jaws, but usually worn out with age. Vomer and palatine without teeth. Gill rakers numerous, long and feather-like and distinctly visible when the mouth is opened. Maxilla partly concealed, covered by lachrymal bone but extending to about hind margin of eye. First dorsal spinous and its first spine shorter than second spine. Second dorsal soft rayed. Dorsal and anal finlets five or six. Pectoral soft rayed and pelvics with one spine and five soft rays. Caudal deeply forked with pointed lobes. Interpelvic process small and single. Swim bladder present. Anal spine rudimentary. Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 11, Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 12, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 12.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Max. age reported: 4 years

Synonym (s)
Scomber kanagurta Ruppell, 1828
Scomber kanagurta Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1931
Scomber kanagurta Ruppell, 1835
Scomber microlepidotus Cantor, 1850
Scomber loo Bleeker, 1852
Scomber moluccensis Bleeker, 1856
Scomber microlepidotus Gunther, 1860
Scomber loo Kner, 1867
Scomber loo Steindachiner, 1868
Scomber kanagurta Klunzinger, 1871
Scomber lepturus Agassiz, 1874
Scomber microlepidotus Day, 1876
Scomber kanagurta Gunther, 1876
Scomber kanagurta Macleay, 1884
Scomber kanagurta Klunzinger, 1884
Scomber kanagurta Kitahara, 1897
Scomber kanagurta Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Scomber kanagurta Fowler, 1905
Scomber microlepidotus Jordan and Seale, 1907
Scomber kanagurta van Kampen, 1907
Scomber kanagurta Bean and Weed, 1912
Scomber moluccensis Weber, 1913
Rastrelliger kanagurta Jordan and Starks, 1917
Scomber kanagurta Fowler and Bean, 1922
Rastrelliger chryzozonus Kishinouye, 1923
Rastrelliger microlepidotus Barnard, 1927
Scomber kanagurta Fowler, 1928
Rastrelliger chrysozonus Linnaeus, 1934
Rastrelliger kanagurta Fowler, 1936
Scomber microlepidotus Blegvad, 1944
Rasteltiger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
Rastreliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
Rastrilleger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
Rastrelliger canagurta (Cuvier, 1829)
Rastrelliger chrysozonus (Ruppell, 1836)
Rastrelliger loo (Lesson, 1829)
Rastrelliger microlepidotus (Ruppell, 1836)
Rastrelliger serventyi Whitley, 1944
Scomber canagurta Cuvier, 1829
Scomber chrysozonus Ruppell, 1836
Scomber delphinalis Cuvier, 1832
Scomber kanagurta Cuvier, 1816
Scomber loo Lesson, 1829
Scomber microlepidotus Ruppell, 1836
Scomber reani Day, 1871
Scomber uam Montrouzier, 1857

Common Name (s)
• Long Jawed Mackerel (English)
• Indian Mackeral (English)
• Rake Gilled Mackerel (English)
• Kannangadatha (Telugu)
• Managurta (Telugu)
• Karan Kite
• Augalai (Tamil)
• Ayala (Malayalam)
• Ayla (Malayalam)
• Bangada (Gujarati)
• Bangada (Kannada)
• Bangada (Konkani)
• Bangada (Marathi)
• Bangadei (Kannada)
• Bangda (Kannada)
• Bangadi (Hindi)
• Kamangadachalu (Telugu)
• Kanagurta (Telugu)
• Kanangeluthi (Tamil)
• Karan-kita (Oriya)
• Kaulagedar (Marathi)
• Kumala (Tamil)
• Mackerel (English)
• Oibia gedar (Sindhi)
• Ayilai
• Asalai
• Horse Mackerel (English)
• Indian Mackerel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish. Marketed fresh or frozen, dried, salted, canned, smoked, also made in to fish sauce
Used as a bait )

Habitat:  Pelagic, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, detritus, finfish, phytoplankton, bony fish, fish eggs/larvae
Predator:  Fishes (Scomberoides lysan, Carcharhinus sorrah, Carcharhinus tilstoni, Scomberomus sp., ribbonfishes), unidentified dolphins


• Maharashtra, Dahanu Creek (Lat: 19.97) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Danda Creek (Lat: 19.6) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Savta Creek (Lat: 19.95) (Long: 72.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Red Sea
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Thoothukkudi coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2008, 08/2009)
• Tamil Nadu, Kudankulam INDIA
• Goa, Colva INDIA (Record: 10/1988-11/1988)
• Goa, Panaji INDIA (Record: 10/1988-11/1988)
• Kerala INDIA
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 7.85) (Long: 72.51) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 19.5) (Long: 87.83) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Karnataka, Mangalore (Lat: 12.87) (Long: 74.88) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Kulkarni, GM (1978) On an interesting specimen of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier) landed at Malwan, Maharashtra Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 20(1-2) 157-158
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Ghosh, TK (2002) Ranking of fishes harvested from creeks at Dahanu in west coast of India AFSIB, Mangalore and AoA, Bhubaneswar 319-326 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at - www.coralcay.org
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Euzen, O (1987) Food habits and diet composition of some fish of Kuwait Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 65-85 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kongprom, A; Khemakorn, P; Monton, E and Supongpan, M Status of demersal fishery resources in the Gulf of Thailand Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Tatang, S (1976) The species of Rastrelliger in the Jawa sea, their taxonomy and morphometry (Perciformes, Scombridae) Marine Research in Indonesia Lembaga Oseanologi Nasional (National Institute of Oceanology) Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia 16 39842 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Shriadah, Mohammed A (2000) Contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons in two semi-enclosed areas along the Arabian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates Oebalia 26 49-62
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Al-Shwafi, NAA (2002) Heavy metals concentration levels in some fish species in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden-Yemen Qatar University Science Journal 22 171-176 Available at - Zoological records(yemen-marine)
  • Fayad, NM; ElMubarak, AH and Edora, RL (1996) Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 56(3) 475-482 Available at - ZOOR13200066267
  • Joiris, CR; Das, HK; Holsbeek, L (2000) Mercury accumulation and speciation in marine fish from Bangladesh Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(5) 454-457 Available at - Zoological Records (Bangladesh)
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Laroche, J; Baran, E and Rasoanandrasana, NB (1997) Temporal patterns in a fish assemblage of a semiarid mangrove zone in Madagascar Journal of Fish Biology 51 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subramaniyan, M; Venugopal, D and Palaniyappan, J (2008) Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption Environmental Research Elsevier 109(1) 15-21 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.08.006
  • Mishra, S; Bhalke, S; Pandit, GG and Puranik, VD (2009) Estimation of 210Po and its risk to human beings due to consumption of marine species at Mumbai, India Chemosphere Elsevier 76(3) 402-406 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.03.021
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Shakila, RJ; Vijayalakshmi, K and Jeyasekaran, G (2003) Changes in histamine and volatile amines in six commercially important species of fish of the Thoothukkudi coast of Tamil Nadu, India stored at ambient temperature Food Chemistry Elsevier 82(3) 347-352 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00552-6
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Beaufort, LF and Chapman, WM (1951) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A. J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 9 484 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ravi, V and Sekar, V (2010) Dietary composition of the sailfish Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw & Nodder, 1792) from Parangipettai, southeast coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin 52(1) 102-104 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rameshkumar, G and Ravichandran, S (2010) New host record, Rastrelliger kanagurta, for Nerocila phaeopleura Parasites (crustacea, isopoda, cymothoidae) Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research IDOSI 5(1) 54-56 Available at - www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5(1)/10.pdf
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Raj, YL; Wesley, SG and Rajan, MP (2010) Status of Cu, Zn and Cr content in fin and shell fishes of Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar, India South Indian Coastal and Marine Bulletin Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India 2(1) 10-13 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Menezes, MR; Naik, S and Martins, M (1993) Genetic divergence in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) from the coastal waters of Peninsular India and the Andaman Sea Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Fisheries Association 40(3) 135-141 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2794
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • Basheeruddin, S and Nayar, KN (1961) A preliminary study of the juvenile fishes of the coastal waters off Madras city Indian Journal of Fisheries Ernakulam, Cochin-ll, India 8 (1) 169-188 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1939/1/Article_15.pdf
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3454/1/3.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Reef Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Coastal Fishery Resources in Countries Bordering Indian Ocean Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ansari, ZA (2004) Fish and fisheries of Goa coast 110-119 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Devaraj, M and Vivekanandan, E (1999) Marine capture fisheries of India: Challenges and Opportunities Current Science Current Science Association 76(3) 314-333 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6115/1/509.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-03-13

Back to Search