Rastrelliger kanagurta   (Cuvier,  1816) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Scombridae

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Description
Size: 25-39 cm.

Color: Body bluish-green tending towards gray above and yellow on belly and at sides, with about three grayish longitudinal stripes along upper half of body. A row of 16 irregular grayish blotches below the dorsal fin on the back and one blotch below base of pectoral. Dorsal fins yellow with tips and outer margin grayish. Pectoral yellow. Caudal yellow, dark along the margin and extremities. In larger specimens when fresh a few golden yellow bands present along and below lateral line and in small juveniles small round grayish dots along upper half of back.
Feeds on phytoplankton (diatoms) and small zooplankton (cladocerans, ostracods, larval polychaetes, etc.). Adult individuals feed on macroplankton such as larval shrimps and fish.

Head longer than body depth. Body laterally compressed. Snout pointed, eyes with thick adipose eyelids. Mouth large, oblique with deep cleft. Teeth small, in a single row in both jaws, but usually worn out with age. Vomer and palatine without teeth. Gill rakers numerous, long and feather-like and distinctly visible when the mouth is opened. Maxilla partly concealed, covered by lachrymal bone but extending to about hind margin of eye. First dorsal spinous and its first spine shorter than second spine. Second dorsal soft rayed. Dorsal and anal finlets five or six. Pectoral soft rayed and pelvics with one spine and five soft rays. Caudal deeply forked with pointed lobes. Interpelvic process small and single. Swim bladder present. Anal spine rudimentary. Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 11, Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 12, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 12.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Max. age reported: 4 years


Synonym (s)
Scomber kanagurta Ruppell, 1828
Scomber kanagurta Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1931
Scomber kanagurta Ruppell, 1835
Scomber microlepidotus Cantor, 1850
Scomber loo Bleeker, 1852
Scomber moluccensis Bleeker, 1856
Scomber microlepidotus Gunther, 1860
Scomber loo Kner, 1867
Scomber loo Steindachiner, 1868
Scomber kanagurta Klunzinger, 1871
Scomber lepturus Agassiz, 1874
Scomber microlepidotus Day, 1876
Scomber kanagurta Gunther, 1876
Scomber kanagurta Macleay, 1884
Scomber kanagurta Klunzinger, 1884
Scomber kanagurta Kitahara, 1897
Scomber kanagurta Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Scomber kanagurta Fowler, 1905
Scomber microlepidotus Jordan and Seale, 1907
Scomber kanagurta van Kampen, 1907
Scomber kanagurta Bean and Weed, 1912
Scomber moluccensis Weber, 1913
Rastrelliger kanagurta Jordan and Starks, 1917
Scomber kanagurta Fowler and Bean, 1922
Rastrelliger chryzozonus Kishinouye, 1923
Rastrelliger microlepidotus Barnard, 1927
Scomber kanagurta Fowler, 1928
Rastrelliger chrysozonus Linnaeus, 1934
Rastrelliger kanagurta Fowler, 1936
Scomber microlepidotus Blegvad, 1944
Rasteltiger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
(misspelling)
Rastreliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
(misspelling)
Rastrilleger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816)
(misspelling)
Rastrelliger canagurta (Cuvier, 1829)
Rastrelliger chrysozonus (Ruppell, 1836)
Rastrelliger loo (Lesson, 1829)
Rastrelliger microlepidotus (Ruppell, 1836)
Rastrelliger serventyi Whitley, 1944
Scomber canagurta Cuvier, 1829
Scomber chrysozonus Ruppell, 1836
Scomber delphinalis Cuvier, 1832
Scomber kanagurta Cuvier, 1816
Scomber loo Lesson, 1829
Scomber microlepidotus Ruppell, 1836
Scomber reani Day, 1871
Scomber uam Montrouzier, 1857

Common Name (s)
• Long Jawed Mackerel (English)
• Indian Mackeral (English)
• Rake Gilled Mackerel (English)
• Kannangadatha (Telugu)
• Managurta (Telugu)
• Karan Kite
• Augalai (Tamil)
• Ayala (Malayalam)
• Ayla (Malayalam)
• Bangada (Gujarati)
• Bangada (Kannada)
• Bangada (Konkani)
• Bangada (Marathi)
• Bangadei (Kannada)
• Bangda (Kannada)
• Bangadi (Hindi)
• Kamangadachalu (Telugu)
• Kanagurta (Telugu)
• Kanangeluthi (Tamil)
• Karan-kita (Oriya)
• Kaulagedar (Marathi)
• Kumala (Tamil)
• Mackerel (English)
• Oibia gedar (Sindhi)
• Ayilai
• Asalai
• Horse Mackerel (English)
• Indian Mackerel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish. Marketed fresh or frozen, dried, salted, canned, smoked, also made in to fish sauce
Used as a bait )

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, detritus, finfish, phytoplankton, bony fish, fish eggs/larvae
Predator:  Fishes (Scomberoides lysan, Carcharhinus sorrah, Carcharhinus tilstoni, Scomberomus sp., ribbonfishes), unidentified dolphins

Biogeography


• Maharashtra, Dahanu Creek (Lat: 19.97) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Danda Creek (Lat: 19.6) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Savta Creek (Lat: 19.95) (Long: 72.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• MYANMAR
• Red Sea
• SEYCHELLES
• INDONESIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Thoothukkudi coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2008, 08/2009)
• Tamil Nadu, Kudankulam INDIA
• Goa, Colva INDIA (Record: 10/1988-11/1988)
• Goa, Panaji INDIA (Record: 10/1988-11/1988)
• Kerala INDIA
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 7.85) (Long: 72.51) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 19.5) (Long: 87.83) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 23-100 mts)
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Karnataka, Mangalore (Lat: 12.87) (Long: 74.88) INDIA

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