Meretrix meretrix   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Clam)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order:Veneroida
Family:Veneridae

Image copyrights: Schooner specimen shells

Description
Size: Maximum shell length 7 cm, commonly to 6 cm; width 8.10-62 mm; height 4.15-41.2 mm

Color: Outside of shell very variable in color and pattern, under the transparent and glossy, pale straw-colored periostracum. It is basically white and often flushed with deep purple brown on posterodorsal slope, or fawn to chestnut brown, plain or variously spotted, blotched or streaked with darker grey or brown. Interior porcelaneous white, sometimes stained with dark brown along posterodorsal margin.

Shell thick, moderately inflated with a variable, nearly equilateral to rather strongly inequilateral shape, trigonal-ovate in outline. Umbones anterior, poorly inflated, pointing on top of dorsal margin which is strongly sloping on both sides and longest posteriorly. Anterior and ventral margins broadly rounded, posterior end of shell bluntly angled. Lunule smooth and poorly defined, escutcheon indistinct. Posterodorsal slope shallowly convex, bordered by a faint radial fold that disappears toward posteroventral end of valves. Outer surface of shell smooth, except from low concentric growth marks. Periostracum smooth and glossy, closely applied to shell. Hinge plate thick, with an irregularly shaped, concave ventral outline, bearing in each valve 3 cardinal teeth and well developed anterior lateral teeth, a strong one in left valve, nearly parallel to dorsal margin, and 2 smaller ones in right valve, with a deep median socket. Ligamental nymphs with fine transverse grooves. Pallial sinus broad and rather shallow, rounded anteriorly. Internal margins smooth. The periostracum is thin, delicate and of grey or straw colour. On the postero-dorsal margin of the shell a greyish blue or bluish brown band is present.


Synonym (s)
Venus meretrix Linnaeus, 1758
Meretrix meretrix Annandale & Kemp, 1916
Meretrix meretrix Hornell, 1917
Meretrix meretrix Fischer-Piette, 1976
Cytherea castanea Lamarck, 1818
Cytherea corpulenta Gray, 1838
Cytherea ponderosa Schumacher, 1817
Meretrix labiosa Lamarck, 1801
Venus meretrix Linnaeus, 1758
Cytherea zonaria var. 2 Lamarck, 1818

Common Name (s)
• Great Clam
• Clam
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Artisanal exploitation, The flesh of the clams is tasty before the bivalves spawn.)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal

Biogeography


• Karnataka, South Kanara INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1913, 1985)
• Orissa, Satpara INDIA (Record: 1913, 1954, 1985, 1987)
• Orissa, Arakuda INDIA (Record: 01/01/1955, 1955, 1985, 1986)
• Orissa, Palur Canal INDIA (Record: 1986)
• West Bengal, Diamond Harbour INDIA (Record: 17/06/1964)
• West Bengal, Port Canning INDIA (Record: 10/03/1965, 27/09/1984)
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 04/06/1964)
• West Bengal, Ganga Sagar INDIA (Record: 27/05/1984)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Red Sea
• SRI LANKA
• MYANMAR
• Maharashtra, Nariman Point INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• West Bengal, Subarnarekha Mouth INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, Old Digha INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, Sankarpur INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• Maharashtra, Kalbadevi Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Talburai INDIA (Record: 05/11/1962-06/11/1962)
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA (Record: 04/03/1964)
• Orissa, Paradwip INDIA (Record: 09/09/1973)
• Orissa, Konark INDIA (Record: 19/11/1962)
• Orissa, Satpara Island INDIA (Record: 29/12/1954)
• Orissa, Chhatrapur INDIA (Record: 24/12/1962)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour-Thane creek system INDIA (Record: 1985-1986)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.9) (Long: 72.78) INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 19.15) (Long: 72.93) INDIA (Record: 12/2006-11/2007)
• Karnataka, North Kanara INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bhatia Creek INDIA
• Maharashtra, Tarkarli Creek INDIA
• Goa, Siridao beach INDIA
• Goa, Siolim INDIA
• Goa, Ribandar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon (Lat: 19.9) (Long: 85.63) INDIA (Record: 07/2007-10/2007, 07/2008-10/2008)
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon (Lat: 19.46) (Long: 85.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2007-10/2007, 07/2008-10/2008)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.8) (Long: 11.88) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.81) (Long: 11.76) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Maharashtra, Alibag INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Arukkattuthurai (Lat: 10.39) (Long: 79.86) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Kodikkarai (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Mallipattinam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.32) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Manalmelkudi (Lat: 10.42) (Long: 79.31) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Adirampattinam (Lat: 9.95) (Long: 79.18) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cooum Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Tellicherry INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mahim Creek INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Karnataka, Kodibag INDIA
• Karnataka, Ankola INDIA
• Karnataka, Tadri INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.94) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.96) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

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