Gafrarium tumidum [Status Unaccepted]   Roding,  1798 (Clam)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bivalvia

Image copyrights: Schooner specimen shells

Size: Maximum shell length 4 cm, commonly to 3 cm.

Colour: Outer coloration of shell variable, usually off-white to fawn and with indistinct dark brown blotches around umbonal area and posterodorsal margin, but sometimes extending throughout the shell surface. Lunule commonly tinged dark brown, at least towards the umbones. Interior of shell porcelaneous white, with variable dark purplish brown blotches on hinge area and posterior half of shell.

Shell thick and solid, with a very variable, relatively inflated, short and high shape, ovate-subquadrate to subtrigonal in outline. Posterior margin convex, high and truncate to somewhat obliquely expanded posteroventrally. Umbones thick, low and rounded, markedly anterior to midline of valves. Lunule ovate, moderately flattish or somewhat depressed, set off from valve by an incised peripheral groove and only sculptured with concentric growth marks. Escutcheon long and narrow, depressed, smoothish. Outer sculpture rather coarse, with strong, nodulous radial riblets, diverging obliquely towards anterior and posterior parts of valves, some dividing into 2 with growth. Ribs of posterior slope weaker, strongly oblique and somewhat recurved dorsalwards, with rather wide interstices. Anterior limit of posterior slope distinct, generally marked by a single, uninterrupted radial rib, running from the umbonal region to posteroventral margin. Hinge plate strong, with 3 cardinal teeth at each valve and well-developed anterior lateral teeth: 1 in left valve, and 2 in right valve, separated by a deep socket. Pallial sinus very shallow, reduced to a faint depression under posterior adductor scar. Inner ventral margin crenulated.

Synonym (s)
Gafrarium pectinatum (non Linnaeus, 1758)
Circe gibbia (Lamarck, 1818)
(Junior synonym)
Gafrarium undulatum Roding, 1798
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Tumid Venus
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance
(It is artisanally exploited and marketed.
Used as a bioindicator species of metal contamination.)

Habitat:  Sandy, Coastal


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Goa (Lat: 15.65) (Long: 73.74) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA (Record: 06/2005-05/2006)
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• South East Coast (Lat: 8.58) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• South East Coast (Lat: 9.41) (Long: 79.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 78.13) (Long: 8.58) INDIA (Record: 01/1994-12/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 79.5) (Long: 9.33) INDIA (Record: 01/1994-12/1995)

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Harkantra, SN and Rodrigues, NR (2003) Pattern of species succession of soft-bottom macrofauna in the estuaries of Goa, west coast of India Current Science 85(10) 1458-1464 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Rodrigues, NR (2003) Benthic ecology and bioturbation in the coastal waters of Goa, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Shanmugam, A; Rajagopal, S and Nazeer, RA Common bivalves of Parangipettai coast Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hedouin, L; Metian, M; Teyssie, JL; Fowler, SW; Fichez, R and Warnau, M (2006) Allometric relationships in the bioconcentration of heavy metals by the edible tropical clam Gafrarium tumidum Science of the Total Environment 366 154-163 Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Poutiers, JM (1998) Bivalves FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Volume 1: Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods FAO, Rome 1 686 pp Available at -
  • Serebiah, JS; Stella, C and Kadhar, AA (2008) Assessment of benthos in the subtidal area of Thondi (Palk Bay), southeast Tamilnadu- GIS based explication Proceedings of the national symposium on marine and coastal ecosystems 27-29, August 2007 Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Marine Fisheries- 623 520, Tamilnadu, India 30 279-296 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mayhew, R Schooner specimen shells Available at -
  • Alagarswami, K and Narasimham, KA (1973) Clam, cockle and oyster resources of the indian coasts Living resources of the seas around India CMFRI, Cochin 648-658 Available at -
  • Jones, S (1969) The molluscan fishery resources of India Proceedings of the Symposium on Mollusca CMFRI 906-918 Available at -
  • Das, AK and Roy, MKD (1989) A general account of the mangrove fauna of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fauna of conservation areas Zoological survey of India 1-152 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagadis, I (2011) Spawning, larval development and spat settlement in the venus clam Gafrarium tumidum (Roding,1798) from South-east coast of india Indian Journal of Fisheries The Director, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, India 58(2) 1-5 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hameed, PS and Somasundaram, SSN (1998) A survey of bivalve molluscs in Gulf of Mannar, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Kochi, India 45(2) 177-181 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-03-09

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