Pseudorhombus triocellatus   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Size: Max length 15.0 cm SL (male/unsexed); common length 10.0 cm SL (male/unsexed)

Color: Body brownish, with 1 ocellus above and below lateral line and 1 ocellus on posterior third of straight section of lateral line. Many indistinct spots and blotches on body.

Very elevate, dorsal profile much arched. Height 1.5 twice in length with caudal. Head 3.1, 4.1 in length with caudal. Eyes 4, about equal, above each other, separated by a low bony ridge, somewhat more than snout, more than twice in postorbital part of head. Maxillary scaly on colored side, 1.9 in head, reaching to below middle of eye. Mouth very oblique, a single row of minute teeth in both jaws. Origin of dorsal beginning on blind side above anterior nostril. A line through origin of dorsal and posterior nostril does not reach maxillary. Dorsal and anal rays all simple. Anterior dorsal rays the longest, subposterior anal rays the longest. Scales ctenoid on colored side and on anterior half of blind side, cycloid on posterior half of blind side. Top of curve of lateral lines separated by 13-14 scales from dorsal. Anterior prolongation of lateral line reaching dorsal profile at 12th scale (on blind side). Left pectoral somewhat longer than head without snout, right pectoral shorter than eye and snout, ventrals scarcely shorter. Fifteen slender gillrakers, longer than half eye diameter, on lower branch of first branchial arch.
Pectoral fin on ocular side with 11-12 soft rays. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 65 - 70, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 49-52.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Pleuronectes triocellatus Bloch, 1801
Rhombus triocellatus Bleeker, 1853
Rhombus tricellatus Valenciennes, 1846
Pseudorhombus triocellatus Gunther, 1862
Pseudorhombus triocellatus Kner, 1867
Pseudorhombus triocellatus Bleeker, 1872
Pseudorhombus triocellatus Day, 1888
Paralichthys triocellatus Fowler, 1904
Pleuronectes triocellatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Common Name (s)
• Three Spotted Flounder (English)
• Fleunder (English)
• Kurapani Lep (Konkani)
• Nallanmanthal (Malayalam)
• Lep (Marathi)
• Three-spot Flounder (English)
• Naakku meen
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium)

Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos


• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Kerala, Shanghumugham INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA
• Kerala, Kovalam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Orissa, Gopalpur INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Ho, JS; Kim, IH and Kumar, AB (2000) Chondracanthid copepods parasitic on flatfishes of Kerala, India Journal Of Natural History Taylor and Francis 34(5) 709-735 Available at -
  • Norman, JR (1928) The flatfishes (Heterosomata) of India, with a list of the specimens in the Indian Museum. Part 1 Records of the Indian Museum ZSI 29 7 Available at - Pune University, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Kurian, CV (1953) A preliminary survey of the bottom fauna and bottom deposits of the Travancore coast within the 15-fathom line Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 19 746–775 Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A (1996) Nematode parasites associated with the flatfishes (order: pleuronectiformes) of the Kerala coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 38(1&2) 34-39 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Radhakrisnan, EV; Kathirvel, M; Devarajan, K; Vijayakumaran, M; Poovannan, P; Thangavelu, R; Hameed, KS; Sankaralingam, S; Ramakrishnan, A and Thangar, VS (1989) An unusual congregation of organisms in the catches off Kovalam, Madras Marine fisheries information service ICAR 99 16-18 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-09

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