Promethichthys prometheus   (Cuvier,  1832) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Max. size : 100.0 cm SL

Color: Bluish brown, head darker. Spinous dorsal hyaline with dark outer portion especially in front. Soft dorsal, anal and caudal brownish, darker distally.

Head 3.1 in standard length, 3.7 in total length. Depth of body 5.8 in standard length, 6.9 in total length. Eye diameter 5.0 in head, 1.7 in snout and 1.1 in slightly concave interorbital space. Lower jaw prominent, maxillary reaching to a point midway between anterior border of eye and the pupil. A single row of fang-like teeth in upper jaw, four teeth in front much larger and two smaller teeth in between the second pair. Lower jaw with a single row of similar teeth, two front teeth larger. Palatines with a single row of small, sharp teeth. Anterior nostril slightly behind the midpoint between tip of snout and front border of eye; hind nostril closer to anterior nostril than to front border of eye. Origin of first dorsal fin slightly behind a vertical from hind border of preopercle; first two dorsal spines shorter than sixth or seventh, it being 1.3 eye diameter. Second dorsal fin as high as longest spine of first dorsal; anal similar. Two isolated finlets behind soft dorsal and anal. Pectoral fin slightly longer than half of head. Ventral fin reduced to an inconspicuous spine, slightly in advance of the pectoral fin. Scales small, deciduous. Lateral line single, descending obliquely below 4th or 5th dorsal spine to a little ventral to the midline of body and ending on caudal fin.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: XVIII; number of spines and rays in the second dorsal fin: II, 18+2; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: II, 16+2; number of rays in the pectoral fin: 14.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Probably spawns throughout the year in warmer seas.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Promethychthis prometheus (Cuvier, 1832)
Dicrotus armatus Gunther, 1860
(Ambiguous synonym)
Dicrotus parvipinnis Goode & Bean, 1896
(Ambiguous synonym)
Gempylus prometheus Cuvier, 1832
(Senior synonym)
Prometheus atlanticus Lowe, 1838
(Junior synonym)
Promethichthys pacificus Seale, 1906
(Junior synonym)
Promethichthys solandri Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka, 1927
(Junior synonym)
Thyrsites ballieui Sauvage, 1882
(Junior synonym)
Thyrsites prometheus (Cuvier, 1832)
(Senior synonym)
Gempylus prometheus Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
Thyrsites prometheus Gunther, 1860
Promethichthys prometheus Goode and Bean, 1895
Promethycthus prometeus (Cuvier, 1832)
Promethycthus prometheus (Cuvier, 1832)
Prometichthys prometeus (Cuvier, 1832)
Prometichthys prometheus (Cuvier, 1832)

Common Name (s)
• Roudi Escolar (English)
• Promethean Escolar (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Gamefish, used as bait. Marketed fresh or iced; made into fish cakes; also dried salted.
Causes ciguatera poisoning)

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, finfish, bony fish, cephalopods, crustaceans
Predator:  Alepisaurus ferox, Carcharhinus albimarginatus


• Lakshadweep, Off Kavaratti INDIA
• Off Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1970) New records of fishes from the seas around India - part VII Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 12(1-2) 187-196 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-07

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