Anadara granosa   (Linneaus,  1758) (Clam)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order:Arcoida
Family:Arcidae

Description
Max. size: 9.0 cm TL; Length: 21.60-56.50 mm; Width: 16.70-45.40 mm; Height: 15.15-46.40 mm.

Color: Outside of shell white under the yellowish brown periostracum. Inner side white, often tinged yellow towards the umbonal cavity.

Shell equivalve, thick and solid, ovate, strongly inflated, slightly longer than high and feebly inequilateral. Umbones strongly protruding, cardinal area rather large. About 18 radial ribs (15 to 20) with wide interstices at each valve. Ribs stout and distinctly rugose, bearing regular, often rectangular nodules. Periostracum rather thin and smooth. Internal margins with strong crenulations corresponding with the external radial ribs. No byssal gape. The name “blood cockle”, often used for this species is due to the respiratory pigment haemoglobin colouring its tissues.

Anadara granosa reproduces from August to February of the next year and begins to be mature at the age of 1+ - 2+. One female can produce 518,400 - 2,313,200 eggs.


Synonym (s)
Anadara (Tegillarca) granosa Linnaeus, 1868
Anadara granosa Rao, 1991
Arca (Anadara) granosa Annandale & Kemp, 1916
Arca granosa Linnaeus, 1758
Anadara bisenensis Schrenck & Reinhardt, 1938
(Junior synonym)
Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Senior synonym)
Anadara obessa Kotaka, 1953
Anadara granosa kamakurensis Noda, 1966
Arca corbicula Gmelin, 1790
Anadara (Tegillarca) granosa Linnaeus, 1968

Common Name (s)
• Granular Ark
• Ark Shell (English)
• Cockle (Blood Clam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; shells are used in the manufacture of lime.)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Organic detritus, phytoplankton, unicellular algae
Predator:  Takifugu oblongus

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary (Lat: 15.28) (Long: 73.52) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Orissa, Barkuda INDIA (Record: 1913)
• Orissa, Samal Island INDIA (Record: 1913)
• Orissa, Rambha INDIA (Record: 1913)
• Orissa, Arakuda INDIA (Record: 1985)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985)
• Orissa, Palur Canal INDIA (Record: 1986)
• West Bengal, Ganga Sagar INDIA (Record: 25/08/1978, 03/09/1979)
• West Bengal, Jharkhali INDIA (Record: 23/09/1984)
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 27/03/1983)
• West Bengal, Netidhopani, Naubankichara INDIA (Record: 30/08/1987)
• West Bengal, Port Canning INDIA
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• West Bengal, Subarnarekha Mouth INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, New Digha INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, Sankarpur INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Bay INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA (Record: 05/11/1962)
• Orissa, False Point INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA
• Orissa, Konark INDIA (Record: 19/11/1962)
• West Bengal, Gangetic Delta INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ennore Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tharangambadi INDIA
• Kerala, Malabar Coast INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• West Bengal, Sandhead INDIA (Record: 17/06/1888)
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• Orissa, Chiriyakuda INDIA (Record: 1913)
• West Bengal, Champta INDIA (Record: 11/09/1983, 04/11/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Arukkattuthurai (Lat: 10.39) (Long: 79.86) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Kodikkarai (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Mallipattinam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.32) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Manalmelkudi (Lat: 10.42) (Long: 79.31) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Adirampattinam (Lat: 9.95) (Long: 79.18) INDIA (Record: 09/2007-08/2008)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 1999-2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 1999-2000)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA
• INDIA

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Page last updated on:2011-12-16

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