Pomadasys maculatus   (Bloch,  1793) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 40-59.3 cm.

Max. weight published: 3,200 gm.

Color: Silvery, this species is characterized by several dark large elongate blotches on the upper back, one forming a saddle on the nape.

Height 2.7-2.9, 3.2-3.5 in length with caudal. Head 2.8-3.1, 3.4-3.7 in length with caudal. Eye 3.3-3.8, somewhat less than snout in small specimens, 1.2-1.3 in snout in larger ones, and somewhat more than scarcely inter orbital space. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary reaching to below front border of eye or not quite so far. Narrow bands of small pointed teeth in the jaws, with an outer series of enlarged ones. Scales on head reaching before eyes to a line connecting posterior nostrils, on preoperculum in adult 10 transverse rows. Hind border of preoperculum concave, rather coarsely denticulate. Dorsal spines slender, their membrane rather deeply incised between each spine. First spine less than half length of second, which is about three fourths of third. Third spine longest, equal to eye and snout together or slightly longer. Following spines gradually decreasing to the eleventh spine, which is shorter or much shorter than the second one. Last spine as long as or slightly longer than penultimate one. First dorsal ray as long as eight spine, dorsal therefore notched. Following rays shorter. Soft dorsal slightly rounded. First anal spine as long as pupil, second one much stronger and longer than third, equal to snout and half eye together or somewhat longer. First soft anal ray longer than third spine, median soft rays shortest, lower border of the fin therefore with a double concavity. Pectorals as long as head, ventrals, with the first ray produced, slightly more than head without snout. Caudal slightly incised, its hind border straight when the fin is expanded. Small-sized fish of moderately deep body. Isthmus narrow, forming a groove. Chin with 2 pairs or small pores. Dorsal spines (total): 12-12, Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 7.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Anthias maculatus Bloch, 1797
Pomadasys maculatus Day, 1984
Pristipoma maculatum Day, 1875
Pomadasys maculata (Bloch, 1793)
Lutjanus maculatus Lacepede, 1802
Pristipoma caripa Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Pristipoma caripa Bleeker, 1850
Pristipoma caripa Cantor, 1850
Pristipoma maculatum Gunther, 1859
Pristipoma maculatum Kner, 1865
Pristipoma maculatum Klunzinger, 1870
Pristipoma maculatum Bleeker, 1873
Pomadasys maculatus Bleeker, 1877
Pristipoma aculatum Klunzinger, 1884
Pomadasis maculatus Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Pomadasis maculatus Jordan and Seale, 1907
Pomadasis maculatus Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Pomadasis maculatus Jordan and Starks, 1917
Pomadasis maculatus Fowler and Bean, 1922
Pomadasys maculatum Barnard, 1927
Pomadasys maculatus Fowler, 1931
Anthias maculatus Bloch, 1793
(Senior synonym)
Lutjanus maculatus (Bloch, 1793)
(Senior synonym)
Pristipoma caripa Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Pomadasys maculatus Weber and de Beaufort, 1936
Pristipoma maculatum Day, 1878
Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch, 1793)

Common Name (s)
• Blotched Grunt (English)
• Spotted Grunter (English)
• Caripe (Telugu)
• Karkara (Marathi)
• Karkara (Gujarati)
• Kokara
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic crustaceans
Predator:  Sharks and rays


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Ahmad, J and LalDhar, R (1987) Studies on digenetic trematodes of marine fishes from the Puri coast of the Bay of Bengal. Part 53. Families Monorchiidae and Opecoelidae Pakistan Journal of Zoology 19(2) 167-184 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Madhavi, R (1974) Digenetic trematodes from marine fishes of Waltair coast Bay of Bengal family Monorchiidae Rivista di Parassitologia 35(2) 87-98 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Kuo, RS and Shao, KT (1999) Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan Zoological Studies 38(4) 391-404 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Raj, PJS (2006) Macro fauna of Pulicat lake NBA bulletin No.6 NBA Available at - http://www.nbaindia.org/docs/bulletin6-pulicatlake.pdf
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-24

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