Parastromateus niger   (Bloch,  1795) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Rahman, A.K.A.

Size: 60-75 cm.

Color: Color is brown above, silvery-white below.

Height 1.5-1.8, 1.9-2.4 in length with caudal. Head 2.9-3.4, 3.6-4.4 in length with caudal. Eye with a very narrow adipose eyelid, 3.8-4.3, 1.1-1.3 in snout, and 1.2-1.5 in very convex keeled inter-orbital space. Mouth somewhat oblique. Maxillary reaching to below front border of eye. Teeth in the jaws slender, pointed, needle-like, inserted on a ridge, almost absent in adults. Opercular bones smooth, with deciduous small scales. The non rudimentary dorsal spine equal to snout and half eye. Dorsal rays much increasing in length to the fifth, which is as long as the eye, decreasing again in length to the 20th, the edge of this part of the fin being concave. The 20th ray as long as snout, following ones slightly decreasing in length, the last slightly less than eye. First anal spine about equal to snout, second one with an articulated, but unbranched flexible upper part, nearly as long as anterior rays, which are longer than head. Following rays rapidly decreasing in length to the 15th, the edge of this part of the fin concave. From the 15th which is as long as snout, the fin decreasing slightly in height, the last one equal to eye. Pectorals about the length of the post orbital part of head longer than head. Ventrals well developed in young, wanting in adults. Caudal deeply forked, its base narrow, the least depth of the caudal peduncle being equal to eye. Deep-bodied and strongly compressed fishes. Lateral line ends in weakly-developed scutes on the caudal peduncle. Pelvic fins lost in individuals over 9 cm. The anterior parts of the dorsal and anal fins bluish-gray. The other fins yellowish. Dorsal spines (total): 2 - 6, Dorsal soft rays (total): 41 - 46, Anal spines: 2, Anal soft rays: 35 - 40, Vertebrae: 24.

Normally forms large schools. Swims on its side near the surface.

Dioecious with external fertilization. Nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. One clear seasonal peak per year.

Remarks: Value in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Stromateus paru Bloch, 1786
Stromateus niger Bloch, 1795
Stromateus paru Lacepede, 1800
Stromateus paru Bloch and Schneider, 1802
Apolectus stromateus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
Stromateus niger Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833
Apolectus stromateus Cantor, 1850
Stromateus niger Bleeker, 1852
Stromateus niger Gunther, 1860
Parastromateus niger Bleeker, 1865
Stromateus niger Day, 1876
Apolectus niger Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Stromateus niger Pellegrin, 1905
Apolectus niger Jordan and Seale, 1907
Apolectus niger Jordan and Richardson, 1909
Apolectus niger Jordan, Tanaka and Snyder, 1915
Apolectus niger Barnard, 1927
Stromateus niger Vinciguerra, 1926
Apolectus niger Wu, 1929
Formio niger McCulloch, 1929
Formio niger Fowler, 1934
Farastromateus niger Fowler, 1936
Stromateus niger Blegvad, 1944
Apolectus niger (Bloch, 1795)
Citula halli Evermann & Seale, 1907
Formio niger (Bloch, 1795)
Parastromaeus niger Bloch, 1795
Stromateus niger Bloch, 1795
Temnodon inornatus Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1851

Common Name (s)
• Black Pomfret (English)
• Havala
• Addiyo
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; Marketed fresh, may be dried or salted)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds on zoobenthos benthic crustean fish fish eggs/larvae adults plants phytoplankton
Predator:  Sharks/rays- Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Carcharhinus tilstoni


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 17.5) (Long: 83.63) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 115 mts)
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• South West Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-01-30

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