Notopterus notopterus   (Pallas  1769) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Dr. Nilesh Kamalkishor Heda

Size: 35-60 cm SL
Max size: Adults 60.0 cm SL; juveniles <5 cm SL

Color: Plain brown; silvery-white with numerous fine grey spots on body and head.

Body oblong and strongly compressed. Pre orbital serrated. Mouth moderate with maxilla extending up to mid orbit. Dorsal fin inserted nearer to snout than base of caudal. Dorsal soft rays (total): 7 - 9; Anal soft rays: 97 - 111. Convex or only slightly concave dorsal head profile, juveniles with dark bars on the whole body, preopercular scale rows 6-8.
Maxillary reaching to hindborder of pupil or of eyes, according to age, 2¼ - 2½ in length of head. The two ventral ridges of the mandible and of the praeoperculum are serrated, as well as the lower border of the suborbital bones. Origin of dorsal about midway between snout and end of caudal. Dorsal as high as postorbital part of head. Pectorals as long as head without snout. Scales on opercles much larger than those on body, 8-10 transversal rows on praeoperculum. A double series of 28-33 spines along the abdomen. Eight gillrakers, ¾ of eye, 1/3 shorter than branchial filaments. A series of 8 blunt protuberances at the innerside of the first branchial arch. More or less grayish silvery, back darker. Anal and caudal often margined with blackish.

Active during twilight and night. Colonizes and breeds seasonally during rainy days and migrates back to permanent waters in dry season. Breeding takes place in stagnant or running waters in the rainy season. Eggs are laid in small clumps on submerged vegetation. A female measuring 21-25 cm usually lays 1,200-3,000 eggs.

Synonym (s)
Clupea synura Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus kopirot Lacepede, 1800
Gymnotus notopterus Pallas, 1769
(Senior synonym)
Mystus badgee Sykes, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Mystus kapirat Lacepede, 1800
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus bontianus Valenciennes, 1848
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus kapirat Lacepede, 1800
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus notopterus Pallas, 1769
Notopterus osmani Rahimullah & Das, 1991
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus pallasii Valenciennes, 1848
(Junior synonym)
Notopterus primaevus Gunther, 1876
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Kandoolee
• Featherback (English)
• Chalat (Marathi)
• Phallai
• Kalna
• Kanduli (Assamese)
• Pholi (Hindi)
• Chamari (Kannada)
• Chappali (Kannada)
• Chappali Chamari (Kannada)
• Ambattan Valai (Malayalam)
• Ambattankathi (Malayalam)
• Vala (Malayalam)
• But (Punjabi)
• Ambattan Vazhai (Tamil)
• Ambattan Kathi (Tamil)
• Chappathi (Tamil)
• Chinna Vazhai (Tamil)
• Chottavalai (Tamil)
• Cotta Vazhai (Tamil)
• Kandla (Manipuri)
• Chalat (Marathi)
• Patre (Marathi)
• Moh (Punjabi)
• Payi (Punjabi)
• Battu (Punjabi )
• Purri (Punjabi)
• Patra
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(fisheries, the fish is relished both in fresh and dried state, soup made from it is reported to be given to people with measles, use in aquarium, aquaculture.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Prey:  Insects, fish, crustaceans and some young roots of aquatic plants.


• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Bihar, Dighwara INDIA (Record: 1952)
• West Bengal, Bangaon, Ichhamati River INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Karmakar, AK and Datta, AK (1988) On a collection of fish from Bastar district, Madhya Pradesh Occasional paper no 98 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 18264 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nandi, NC; Das, SR; Bhuinya, S and Dasgupta, JM (1993) Wetland faunal resources of West Bengal, I., north and south 24-Parganas districts Occasional paper no 150 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 18264
  • Fauna of Tripura (part-1) vertebrates ZSI, Kolkata 365 pp
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Sanctuary Asia natural history species: Species checklist: Birds Sanctuary Asia Sanctuary Magazine Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Sujansingani, KH (1954) Fish and fisheries of the Chilka Lake with statistics of fish catches for the years 1948-1950 Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1 (1-2) 256-344 Available at -
  • Karamchandani, SJ (1957) On the Occurrence of Association of carp fry in the fry-collection nets and the destructive role played by predatory fish Indian Journal of Fisheries The Editorial Committee, India Journal of Fisheries for the Minister of Food and Agriculture Government of India 4(1) 46-61 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, SR and Nandi, NC (2004) Oxbow lake environment and management of Ichhamati river basin, West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 1(1&2) 81-90 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sarkar, UK; Kapoor, D; Paul, SK; Pathar, Ak; Basheer, VS; Deepak, PK; Srivastava, SM and Tyagi, LK (2007) Fish Biodiversity in the water bodies of samaspur bird sanctuary Uttar Pradesh: towards developing a freshwater aquatic sanctuary Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104(1) 51-54 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-31

Back to Search