Muraenesox cinereus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: FishBase

Size : 50-220 cm.

Color: Light to dark greyish-brown above, lighter below; dorsal and anal fins with narrow black edges.

Snout long, drawn-out mouth. Teeth in upper and lower jaws in three series, the inner one curved, the middle series largest but compressed, extending up to the symphysis with a large canine round which are six or seven large teeth of the outer series. Vomer with strong canine teeth with basal lobes in front and behind, outer mandibular row not directed outwards. Anal opening in 3/5 of body length; dorsal fin commencing above gill opening, its height about half height of body, continuous with caudal and anal, pectorals well developed, about three times in head. Head broader, interorbital about 8 times in head; lateral-line pores before anus 44-47; dorsal-fin rays before anus 66-78; vertebrae 145-159. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Vertebrae: 145 - 159.

Max. age reported: 15 years

Synonym (s)
Muraena arabicus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Muraena cinerea (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Muraenesox arabicus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Muraenesox bengalensis McClelland, 1844
Muraenesox hamiltoniae McClelland, 1844
Muraenesox tricuspidata McClelland, 1844
Muraena cinerea Forsskal, 1775
Muraena bagio Ham., Buch., 1822
Muraenesox cinereus Day, 1878-88
Muraenesox cinereus Gunther, 1910
Muraena arabica Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Conger longirostris Bennett, 1830
Conger oxyrhynchus Eydoux and Souleyet, 1841
Muraenesox hamiltoni McClelland, 1845
ophisurus rostratus Quoy and Gaimard, 1846
Congrus tricuspidatus Richardson, 1846
Conger hamo Schlegel, 1846
Conger bagio Bleeke, 1852
Conger singapurensis Bleeker, 1855
Muraenesox bagio Kaup, 1856
Muraenesox bagio Bleeker, 1864
Conger singapurensis Kner, 1867
Muraenesox cinereus Klunzinger, 1871
Muraenesox cinereus Jordan and Snyder, 1901
Muraenesox cinereus Seale, 1910
Muraena tala cinera Forsskal, 1775
Muraenesox cinereus Talwar and Kacker, 1984
Muraenosox cinereus (Forsskal, 1775)
Muraenesox cinerius (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Daggertooth Pike Corner (English)
• Silver Conger Eel (English)
• Wam (Marathi)
• Kadal Villangu (Tamil)
• Silver Eel (English)
• Velangoo (Tamil)
• Pambu meen (Malayalam)
• Bam (Bengali)
• Daggertooth Pike Conger (English)
• Dagger-tooth Pike-conger
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Highly commercial; marketed mainly fresh, used as a bait for shark fishing, used in Chinese medicine, aquaculture, gamefish.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small bottom fishes and crustaceans


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Dahanu Creek (Lat: 19.97) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Danda Creek (Lat: 19.6) (Long: 72.72) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Savta Creek (Lat: 19.95) (Long: 72.77) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• West Bengal, Kakdwip INDIA (Record: 09/03/1985)
• East Coast, Coromandel INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Maharashtra, Sasoon Dock INDIA
• Maharashtra, Versova INDIA
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 13.55) (Long: 73.4) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 53 mts)
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
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  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at -
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Bal, DV and Mohamed, KH (1957) A systematic account of the eels of Bombay Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 54 (3) 1-9 Available at -
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Sujansingani, KH (1954) Fish and fisheries of the Chilka Lake with statistics of fish catches for the years 1948-1950 Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1 (1-2) 256-344 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-03

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