Monotaxis grandoculis   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 60 cm.

Weight: 5,890 gm

Color: Body is generally bluish-gray grading to whitish on ventral parts, lips are yellow to pinkish. The area around the eye is often yellow or orange. Fins are generally without distinctive markings. The membranes are clear or dusky but often reddish to yellow-orange. The base of the upper pectoral fin rays and the inner base (i.e. the body side) of the pectoral axil are black. The caudal fin usually has blackish rays contrasted against the paler membranous part of the fin. A vertical black bar crosses the eye from above. Small juveniles (often also in large 20-30 cm individuals) whitish on lower half and with three prominent black saddles separated by narrower white bars on upper half.

Height 2.3-2.4, 2.8-3.2 in length with caudal. Head 3-3.1, 3.7-4 in length with caudal. Eye 2.4-3.3, equal to snout in young specimens, 1.2-1.5 in large ones, about equal to or 1.4 (in large specimens) in flat or somewhat convex inter orbital space. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary reaching to below front border of eye in young, nearly to below middle of eye in large specimens. A broad patch of small teeth in the jaws anteriorly, with a series of about 4 canines on each side, followed by a single row of large, laterally elongate flat molars. Palate edentulous. Four to five transverse rows of scales on preoperculum. Lower preopercular limb naked. Hind border of preoperculum minutely denticulate in young, rough to almost smooth in older specimens. Nine or ten rows of scales between occiput and dorsal. Dorsal spine slender. First spine more than half length of second. Fifth spine longest, equal to post orbital part of head or somewhat longer. Soft dorsal rounded, the median rays the longest, much longer than spines, and equal to head without snout.Anal spines rather stout. First spine less than second, third spine longest, about equal to postorbital part of head. Soft anal rounded, equal in height to soft dorsal. Pectorals pointed, as long as head. Ventrals, with the first ray produced, slightly shorter. Caudal forked. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.3-1.5 in its length. Dorsal spines (total): 10-10, Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-10, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 9.

Remarks: Values in above description denotes proportions.

Synonym (s)
Lethrinus latidens Valenciennes, 1830
(Junior synonym)
Monotaxis indica (Bennett, 1830)
(Junior synonym)
Pagrus heterodon Bleeker, 1854
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena grandoculis Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Sparus grandoculis Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Sparus grandoculis Lacepede, 1802
Chrysophrys grandoculis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Spaerodon grandoculis Ruppell, 1835
Sphaerodon grandoculis Gunther, 1859
Sphaerodon latidents Kner, 1865
Sphaerodon grandoculis Klunzinger, 1870
Sphaerodon heterodon Day, 1888
Sphaerodon grandoculis Gunther, 1875
Monotaxis grandoculis Bleeker, 1877
Monotaxis (Sphaerodon) grandoculis Peters, 1877
Sphaerodon euanus Gunther, 1879
Sphaerodon grandoculis Macleay, 1881
Sphaerodon grandoculis Klunzinger, 1884
Sphaerodon grandoculis Day, 1889
Sphaerodon grandoculis Steindachner, 1900
Monotaxis grandoculis Jordan and Evermann, 1905
Monotaxis grandoculis Seale, 1906
Monotaxis grandoculis Jordan and Seale, 1906
Monotaxis grandoculis Herre and Montalban, 1927
Monotaxis grandoculis Fowler, 1928
Monotaxis grandoculis Weber and de Beaufort, 1936
Sphaerodon heterodon Day, 1878
Monotaxis grandocculis (Forsskal, 1775)
Monotaxis grandoculus (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Humpnose Big Eye Bream (English)
• Bigeye Emperor (English)
• Dathi (Mahl)
• Pallan (Malayalam)
• Round-toothed large-eyed bream (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium
The fish causes ciguatera poisoning.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Gastropods, ophiuroids, echinoids, pagurids, brachyuran crabs, polychaetes, tunicates, and holothurians


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island (Lat: 11.08) (Long: 72.75) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Balan, V (1958) Notes on a visit to certain islands of the Laccadive Archipelago, with special reference to fisheries Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 55 (2) 297-306 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-01

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