Macolor niger   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 35-75 cm.

Color: Black and white round spots on back and 2 white horizontal bands, the first from opercle to middle of caudal fin, the second along sides of belly, white also on nape, in front of eye and in front of pectoral and pelvic fins. Posterior dorsal fin spines, last soft rays of dorsal and anal fins, and tips of caudal fin also white. Adults may become completely black.

Head 2.9 in standard length, 3.5 in total length. Depth of body 2.6 in standard length, 3.1 in total length. Body compressed, back elevated. Eye diameter 4.4 in head, 1.3 in snout and 1.6 in somewhat keeled interorbital space. Maxillary reaching to below front third of eye. Teeth in narrow bands in jaws, outer series enlarged, those in front of upper jaw larger than others. A small patch of teeth on vomer and in narrow bands on palatines. Scales beginning behind hind border of eye. Supratemporal band of scales present. Preoperculum with seven rows of scales. Preoperculum with a deep notch, interopercular knob conical and directed forwards. Scale rows above lateral line oblique, those below lateral line horizontal. Longest dorsal fin spine as long as snout. Third anal fin spine slightly shorter than snout. Soft dorsal and anal fins well pointed behind. Pectoral fin slightly longer than head. Ventral fin longer than half length of head. Dorsal fin with 10 spines and 13 or 14 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 11 soft rays; soft parts of dorsal and anal fins pointed posteriorly; pectoral fins longer than head; caudal fin truncate or slightly emarginate.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Diacope macolor Lesson, 1827
(Junior synonym)
Macolor macolor (Lesson, 1827)
(Junior synonym)
Macolor macularis (non Fowler, 1931)
(Misapplied name)
Macolor typus Bleeker, 1860
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena nigra Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena niger Forskal, 1775
Lutianus niger Day, 1888
Lutjanus niger Weber and de Beaufort, 1936
Macolor niger Smith and Smith, 1963

Common Name (s)
• Black Snapper (English)
• Black and White Snapper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes and crustaceans


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at -
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Wahbeh, MI and Ajiad, AM (1987) Some fishes from the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba Dirasat 14(1) 137-154 Available at - ZOOR12400045256
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-03-09

Back to Search