Lutjanus sanguineus   (Cuvier,  1828) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 30-100 cm.

Weight: 23 kg.

Color: In preserved specimens brownish above, silvery below. Dark longitudinal stripes on he body, following the rows of scales, faint in adults. A large blackish saddle-like blotch on dorsal part of caudal peduncle, bordered by a margaritaceous band, which is very broad and saddle-like in front, faint inferiorly and narrow posteriorly. A dark band on temporal region from eye to origin of dorsal in young ones, obsolete in older specimens. Dorsal, anal, caudal and ventrals with a broader or narrower black marginal band. Pectorals yellowish or dusky.

Dorsal profile of head angular, snout steeply sloped. Preorbital bone broad, with horizontal grooves behind and below the eye. Anterior and posterior nostrils widely spaced. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Height 2.2-2.4, 2.7-2.8 in length with caudal. Head 2.5-2.8, 3-3.4 in length with caudal. Eye 4-4.4, 1.3-1.5 in snout, about equal to almost flat inter orbital space in young specimens and 1.2 in more convex inter orbital space of adults. Mouth rather oblique. Maxillary reaching to below front border of pupil (young) or front border of eye (adult). Small teeth in jaws in a few rows, with an outer series of distant moderate caninoid ones. Teeth on vomer in a ^ shaped patch. Palatine teeth in a very narrow band. Anterior part of head naked. Scales beginning on occiput behind vertical through hind border of eye. Temporal region naked. Six to seven transverse rows of scales on preoperculum. Inferior and posterior border of preoperculum denticulated. Preopercular notch almost absent. Longitudinal rows of scales above lateral line as well as below it running obliquely and ascending to dorsal profile. About 68-75 transverse rows of scales above and about 58-63 rows below L1. Dorsal spines slender. First spine less than half length of second, which is shorter than third. Fourth spine longest, somewhat less than post orbital part of head. Following spines gradually decreasing in length. Soft dorsal somewhat rounded, the longest rays as long as longest spines. first anal spine much less than half length of second, which is sub-equal to third and as long as snout. Soft anal rounded, the longest rays much longer than anal spines. Pectorals half length of snout shorter than head. Ventrals equal to head without snout. Ventral spine as long as post orbital part of head. Caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. Dorsal spines (total): 10, Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 8-9.

Dioecious with external fertilization. Breeds in late summer season in sea.

Age: 13 years.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Diacope erythrina (Ruppell, 1838)
Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790
Diacope sanguinea Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Diacope annularis Ruppell, 1828
Diacope annularis Quoy and Gaimard, 1834
Diacope metallicus Bleeker, 1845
Mesoprion annularis (Bleeker, 1849)
Diacope (Mesoprion) rubella Ruppell, 1852
Mesoprion annularis Cantor, 1850
Mesoprion annularis Bleeker, 1857
Lutjanus annularis Bleeker, 1863
Mesoprion annularis Kner, 1865
Mesoprion annularis Playfair, 1866
Mesoprion chirtah Day, 1868
Diacope annularis Klunzinger, 1870
Lutjanus erythropterus Day, 1888
Lutijanus chirtah Bleeker, 1877
Mesoprion annularis Klunzinger, 1880
Mesoprion annularis Macleary, 1881
Mesoprion annularis Klunzinger, 1884
Lutjanus annularis Day, 1889
Lutianus annularis Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Lutianus dodecantheoides Jordan and Seale, 1907
Lutianus erythropterus Jordan and Thompson, 1911
Lutianus erythropterus McCulloch, 1915
Lutianus erythropterus Barnard, 1927
Lutjanus erythropterus Fowler, 1931
Diacope erythrina Ruppell, 1838
(Junior synonym)
Diacope sanguinea Cuvier, 1828
(Senior synonym)
Lutjanus coccineus (non Cuvier, 1828)
(Misapplied name)

Common Name (s)
• Humphead Snapper (English)
• Blood Snapper (English)
• Bloodred Snapper (English)
• Soosta (Oriya)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
Prey:  Nekton, crustaceans and fishes


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajasegar, M and Sendhilkumar, R (2009) Finfish Resources of Karaikal,South East Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1 (4) 330-332 Available at -
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-16

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