Lutjanus gibbus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: 48-50 cm.

Color: Generally body is red or gray, darker on back and upper portion of the head, with orange hue on the lower part of the opercle and in the pectoral axil. The fins are red, or frequently brown to blackish. The soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins have narrow white margins. Juveniles with a large, round, black spot at the base of the caudal fin.

Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped. Preorbital bone broad, much wider than eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob well developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely, both above and below the lateral line. In young and half grown specimens the upper profile of the head is straight, in large specimens (over 300 mm.) the profile of the snout is concave. Height 2.2-2.5, 2.9-3.4 in length with caudal. Head 2.4-2.6, 3.2-3.4 in length with caudal. Eye 3.2-5.1, equal to snout in young specimens, in old ones 1.4-2.3 in snout. Inter orbital space almost flat in young, rather convex in adults, somewhat more or less than eye. Mouth somewhat oblique. Maxillary reaching to below front border of eye, not so far in large specimens. Small teeth in narrow bands in the jaws, with an outer series of distant caninoid ones, those in anterior part of upper jaw and on sides of lower jaw larger and sometimes fang-like. Small teeth on vomer in a ^ shaped patch, palatine teeth in narrow bands. Anterior part of head naked. Scales beginning on occiput behind vertical through hind border of eye. Temporal region naked. Five to six transverse rows of scales on preoperculum. Inferior and posterior preopercular limb naked. Inferior and posterior border of preoperculum denticulate, less so in adults, almost obsolete in very large specimens. Preopercular notch very deep and narrow, receiving the large interopercular knob. In very small specimens the notch is not yet developed, but in those of about 80 mm. It is already present. Longitudinal rows of scales above lateral line as well as below it running obliquely and ascending to dorsal profile. About 62-70 transverse rows of scales above and about 55-60 below lateral line. Dorsal spines rather slender, the first equal to half length of second in young specimens, shorter in old ones. Third, fourth, and fifth spine sub equal, as long as post-orbital part of head in young, equal to greatest length of operculum in adults. Soft dorsal rounded, less high than spinous part in young, higher than spinous part and more pointed in older specimens. First anal spine less than half length of second, which is stronger and longer than third one and about equal to post-orbital part of head in young and to length of operculum in older ones. Soft anal much pointed, more rounded in young, the longest rays much longer than spines. Pectorals somewhat shorter than head. Ventrals almost as long as snout and eye together. Ventral spine equal to snout or somewhat shorter. Caudal deeply emarginate, especially in old specimens. Dorsal spines (total): 10-10, Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14, Anal spines: 3, Anal soft rays: 8.

Dioecious with external fertilization

Age: 18 years

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena gibbus Forsskal, 1775
Sciaena gibba Forskal, 1775
Lutjanus gibbus Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Holocentrus boutton Lacepede, 1803
Diacope lineata Quoy and Gaimard, 1824
Diacope bottonensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Diacope melanura Ruppell, 1837
Mesoprion bottonensis Bleeker, 1851
Mesoprion janthinurus Bleeker, 1854
Diacope coccinea Peters, 1855
Genyoroge gibba Gunther, 1859
Lutjanus butonensis Bleeker, 1863
Mesoprion bottonensis Kner, 1865
Genyoroge bottonensis Playfair, 1866
Diacope gibba Klunzinger, 1870
Mesoprion gibbus Gunther, 1873
Lutjanus butonensis Bleeker, 1877
Lutjanus gibbus Day, 1888
Genyoroge unicolor Alleyne and Macleay, 1877
Genyoroge unicolor Macleary, 1881
Genyoroge bidens Macley, 1882
Mesoprion gibbus Klunzinger, 1884
Diacope gibba Vaillant, 1887
Diacope calveti Sauvage, 1891
Lutijanus tahitiensis Seale, 1906
Lutjanus gibbus Jordan and Seale, 1907
Lutjanus gibbus Jordan and Starks, 1917
Lutianus gibbus Barnard, 1927
Lutianus gibbus Fowler, 1928
Lutjanus castelnaui Whitley, 1928
Lutjanus castelnaui McCulloch, 1929
Lutjanus gibbus Fowler, 1931
Anthias heraldi Schultz, 1953
Diacope tiea Lesson, 1831
Diacope striata Cuvier, 1828
Diacope rosea Valenciennes, 1830
Diacope coccinea Cuvier, 1828
Diacope borensis Cuvier, 1828
Diacope axillaris Valenciennes, 1830

Common Name (s)
• Humpback Snapper (English)
• Humpback Sapper (English)
• Humpback Red Snapper (English)
• Grinimas
• Chemmali
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Prey:  Nekton, fishes, invertebrates, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, stomatopods, cephalopods, echinoderms and ophiuroids


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
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Page last updated on:2011-10-19

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