Leiognathus daura   (Cuvier,  1829) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: 11-14 cm.

Color: Body silvery, dorsally greenish, with a yellowish lateral band from eye to caudal, a blackish rostral band, a black patch on pectoral axil and a black patch between upper part of second to fifth or sixth dorsal spine, other fins hyaline, a black line running along base of soft dorsal.

Oblong, compressed, dorsal profile slightly more convex than ventral, height 2.2 in length [2.8 with caudal], head 3.3 [4.2 with caudal], pointed, rostro-occipital profile ascending in a nearly straight line, with a slight concavity above eyes, dorsal profile behind nape more convex till spinous dorsal. Eye about thrice in head, equal to or slightly longer than blunt snout and equal to interorbital space, which has a triangular undeep depression bordered by the smooth supraorbital ridges, continued as outer borders of the nuchal spine, the length of which surpasses considerably the diameter of the eye. The postnasal spines nearly inconspicuous. Lips thick, commencement of gape of mouth opposite lower third of eye, mandible nearly not concave, maxillary terminating below front border of eye, mouth, when protracted, directed downwards. Praeoperculum with an obtuse angle, its lower border minutely denticulated. Gillrakers 15-16 on lower branch of first branchial arch, very short, the longest about 6 times in eye-diameter. Minute teeth in a single series in jaws. Scales minute, wanting on head and breast, laterals line much less convex than dorsal profile, with short sensory tubes, terminating below end of dorsal, individually followed by some obsolete ones on caudal peduncle. Second dorsal nearly half height of body, the following spines diminishing quickly in length, second anal spine rather strong, much shorter, its length less than length less than length of head without snout. Pectorals broad, equal to length of head without snout. Ventrals about 2/3 of pectorals, with a strong spine and large axillary scale, not reaching anal. Caudal deeply emarginate. Head naked with nuchal spine. Protracted mouth pointing downward. Dorsal spines (total): 8-8; dorsal soft rays (total): 16-16; anal spines: 3; anal soft rays: 14.

Remarks: Values in above descriptions denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Equula dacer Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835
Leiognathus gerroides (Bleeker, 1851)
Equula daura Cuvier, 1829
Equula brevirostris Bleeker, 1845
Equula daura Cantor, 1850
Equula gerreoides Bleeker, 1851
Equula daura Gunther, 1860
Leiognathus gerreoides Bleeker, 1865
Equula gerreoides Day, 1870
Equula daura Day, 1888
Equula gerreoides De Vis, 1884
Equula daura Steindachner, 1902
Leiognathus gerreoides Bean and Weed, 1912
Equula daura de Beaufort, 1913
Leiognathus daura Jordan and Starks, 1917
Equula dacer Valenciennes, 1835
Equula daura Cuvier, 1829
Leiognathus gerroides (Bleeker, 1851)

Common Name (s)
• Golden Striped Ponyfish (English)
• Goldstripe Ponyfish (English)
• Dacer Karah (Telugu)
• Rama Kare (Tamil)
• Karal
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or dried, also used to be fish meal for duck and chicken food)

Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, polychaetes, bivalves, sponges and small crustaceans
Predator:  Bony fish (Saurida tumbil)


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Andaman Sea INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Irumeni INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Gujarat, Kathiawar INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Tikader, BK and Das, AK (1985) Glimpses of animal life of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, Kolkata 1-170 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Sarkar, SK and Bhattacharya, AK (2003) Conservation of biodiversity of the coastal resources of Sundarbans, Northeast India: an integrated approach through environmental education Marine Pollution Bulletin Elsevier 47(1-6) 260-264 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00475-7
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR (1975) A systematic review of the fishes of the family Leiognathidae Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 17 (1) 138-172 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1445/1/James_138-172.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
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  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-16

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