Lates calcarifer   (Bloch,  1790) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: 170-200 cm TL

Weight: 60 Kg

Body elongate, mouth large, slightly oblique, upper jaw extending behind the eye. Lower edge of preopercle serrated, with strong spine at its angle, opercle with a small spine and with a serrated flap above the origin of the lateral line. Caudal fin rounded.
Upper profile of head more or less concave. Height 3-3.1, 3.6-3.7 in length with caudal. Head 2.7-2.8, 3.3-3.4 in length with caudal. Eye 6.4-7.7 (according to size of fish), 1.2-1.9 in snout. Interorbital space convex, 1.2-1.7 in eye. Mouth somewhat oblique. Lower jaw projecting. Maxillary reaching beyond vertical through hindborder of eye, the width of its distal extremity equal to or three fourth of eye. Bands of villiform teeth in the jaws, in a triangular patch on vomer and in narrow elongate patches on palatines, which are pointed posteriorly and continuous with the elongate patch on ectopterygoids. No teeth on tongue. Praeorbital more or less serrated or crenulated, praeopercular border forming an obtuse angle, finely serrated posteriorly, with three to four distant spines along its lower border and with a still stronger spine at its angle. Opercular spine flat. Scales are large and ctenoid type. About 15 rows of scales on cheeks. Opercle scaly. First dorsal spine minute, second one double of first and one third or less of third spine, which is stronger and longer than the others and about half length of head. Spine of second dorsal about equal to sixth one of first dorsal. Second dorsal rounded, less high than first dorsal. First anal spine very small, second one equal to diameter of eye and two thirds of third anal spine. Anal fin rounded, its origin below beginning of second third of second dorsal, and ending somewhat beyond vertical through end of that fin. Pectorals somewhat shorter than ventrals, a little more or less than half length of head. Ventral spine equal to eye and snout. Caudal rounded. Least height of caudal peduncle about 1.2 in its length and 2.5 in length of head.
Dorsal spines (total): 7-9; dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11, anal spines: 3; anal soft rays: 7-8. 11 gillrakers are present on lower arm of first arch.

A diadromous fish, inhabiting rivers before returning to the estuaries to spawn. A protandrous hermaphrodite. Larvae and young juveniles live in brackish temporary swamps associated with estuaries, and older juveniles inhabit the upper portions of rivers. Breeds in late summer to rainy season.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Holocentrus calcarifer Bloch, 1790
Coius vacti Hamilton, 1822
(Ambiguous synonym)
Holocentrus calcarifer Bloch, 1790
(Senior synonym)
Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790)
(Senior synonym)
Lates darwiniensis Macleay, 1878
(Junior synonym)
Pseudolates cavifrons Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Perca calcar Bloch Schneider, 1801
Holocentrus heptadactylus Lacepede, 1802
Lates nobilis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Lates nobilis Bleeker, 1849
Lates heptadactylus Cantor, 1850
Lates calcarifer Gunther, 1859
Lates calcarifer Day, 1888
Plectropoma calcarifer Bleeker, 1876
Lates calcarifer Vinciguerra, 1890
Lates calcarifer Boulenger, 1895
Lates calcarifer Sundara Raj, 1916

Common Name (s)
• Giant Sea Perch (English)
• Bhetki (Bengali)
• Barramundi (English)
• Cock Up Giant Perch (English)
• Pandu Chepa (Telugu)
• Pandu Meenu (Telugu)
• Pandu Koppa (Telugu)
• Bekkut (Oriya)
• Burramundi (English)
• Cock-up (English)
• Bekti (Gujarati)
• Gariyu (Gujarati)
• Koliji (Kannada)
• Keliji (Kannada)
• Nari-Meen (Malayalam)
• Nair-Meen (Malayalam)
• Nuddee-Meen (Malayalam)
• Khajura (Marathi)
• Jiteda (Marathi)
• Fitadar (Marathi)
• Khajuri (Marathi)
• Durruah (Oriya)
• Painnee-meen (Tamil)
• Koduva (Tamil)
• Keduwa (Tamil)
• Pandu-Menu (Telugu)
• Pandu-Kopah (Telugu)
• Dadhara (Telugu)
• Chanak (Konkani)
• Giant Perch (English)
• Koduva
• Dangri
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen, aquaculture)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, fishes and crustaceans


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.03) (Long: 79.78) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary, Patalganga INDIA (Record: 06/1989)
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Kerala, Puduvyppu INDIA (Record: 11/1989-12/1990, 05/1989-08/1990)
• Goa, Salcete INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal, Bangaon, Ichhamati River INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

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Page last updated on:2012-02-01

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