Hippocampus kuda   Bleeker,  1852 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Size: 30 cm TL.

Color: Black to yellow or cream in color with large dark spots.

Adult height: 7.0-17.0cm. Rings: 11+36 (34-38). Snout length: 2.3 (2.0-2.6) in head length. Coronet: low-medium, rounded, overhanging at the back, often with a cup-like depression in the top, sometimes with broad flanges, not spiny. Spines: low, rounded bumps only. Other distinctive characters: deep head, deep body, thick snout.
Supraorbital tubercles generally well developed, in front of them at each side a much smaller and often almost inconspicuous one. Opercle with radiating ridges, often indistinct. Occipital keel behind coronet without spines, at most having a rough edge. Tubercles on cristae sometimes well developed, in other case small and blunt. Those on first, fourth and seventh body ring and first, fifth, eighth, tenth or eleventh, fourteenth and seventeenth tailring sometimes enlarged. The shields are generally smooth, more or less distinctly ridged, sometimes and not only in young specimens covered with small tubercles. Filaments on tubercles very seldom present. Dorsal on two last bodyrings and two first tailrings. The ridge which carries the dorsal fin is low, much lower then in H. hippocampus and the fin itself is much lower too. Dorsal fin rays: 17-18 covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16 (15-18).

Ovoviviparous. The males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail.

Similar species: H. algiricus, H. ingens, H. kelloggi, H. reidi.

Synonym (s)
Hippocampus aterrimus Jordan & Snyder, 1901
Hippocampus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855
Hippocampus hilonis Jordan & Evermann, 1930
Hippocampus melanospilos Bleeker, 1854
Hippocampus natalensis von Bonde, 1923
Hippocampus novaehebudorum Fowler, 1944
Hippocampus polytaenia Bleeker, 1854
Hippocampus raji Whitley, 1955
Hippocampus rhynchomacer Dumeril, 1870
Hippocampus taeniops Fowler, 1904
Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker, 1852
Hippocampus valentini Bleeker, 1859
Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1852
Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1853
Hippocampus comes Kaup, 1856
Hippocampus comes Bleeker, 1856
Hippocampus comes Kner, 1867
Hippocampus melanospilos Dumeril, 1870
Hippocampus guttulatus Gunther, 1870
Hippocampus guttulatus Day, 1888
Hippocampus guttulatus Reuvens, 1894
Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan and Snyder, 1901
Hippocampus comes Vaillant, 1904
Hippocampus tristis Castelnau, 1872
Hippocampus kuda Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Hippocampus aterrimus Franz, 1910
Hippocampus kuda Seale, 1910
Hippocampus guttulatus Gunther, 1910
Hippocampus guttulatus Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911
Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan, 1913
Hippocampus guttulatus Pietschmann, 1913
Hippocamphus kuda Bleeker, 1852
Hippocampus aterrimus Jordan & Snyder, 1902
Hippocampus hilonis Jordan & Evermann, 1903
Hippocampus horai Duncker, 1926
Hippocampus kuda multiannularis Raj, 1941
Hippocampus moluccensis Bleeker, 1852

Common Name (s)
• Spotted Seahorse (English)
• Sea Horse (English)
• Godamas
• Kuthirameen
• Kadal kuthirai
• Jalghodo
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Highly valued species in traditional Chinese medicine, Ornamental fish)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Prey:  Minute organisms
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 1996)
• East Coast, Coromandel INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2011-12-14

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