Hippocampus kuda   Bleeker,  1852 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Syngnathiformes
Family:Syngnathidae

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Description
Size: 30 cm TL.

Color: Black to yellow or cream in color with large dark spots.

Adult height: 7.0-17.0cm. Rings: 11+36 (34-38). Snout length: 2.3 (2.0-2.6) in head length. Coronet: low-medium, rounded, overhanging at the back, often with a cup-like depression in the top, sometimes with broad flanges, not spiny. Spines: low, rounded bumps only. Other distinctive characters: deep head, deep body, thick snout.
Supraorbital tubercles generally well developed, in front of them at each side a much smaller and often almost inconspicuous one. Opercle with radiating ridges, often indistinct. Occipital keel behind coronet without spines, at most having a rough edge. Tubercles on cristae sometimes well developed, in other case small and blunt. Those on first, fourth and seventh body ring and first, fifth, eighth, tenth or eleventh, fourteenth and seventeenth tailring sometimes enlarged. The shields are generally smooth, more or less distinctly ridged, sometimes and not only in young specimens covered with small tubercles. Filaments on tubercles very seldom present. Dorsal on two last bodyrings and two first tailrings. The ridge which carries the dorsal fin is low, much lower then in H. hippocampus and the fin itself is much lower too. Dorsal fin rays: 17-18 covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16 (15-18).

Ovoviviparous. The males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail.

Similar species: H. algiricus, H. ingens, H. kelloggi, H. reidi.


Synonym (s)
Hippocampus aterrimus Jordan & Snyder, 1901
Hippocampus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855
Hippocampus hilonis Jordan & Evermann, 1930
Hippocampus melanospilos Bleeker, 1854
Hippocampus natalensis von Bonde, 1923
Hippocampus novaehebudorum Fowler, 1944
Hippocampus polytaenia Bleeker, 1854
Hippocampus raji Whitley, 1955
Hippocampus rhynchomacer Dumeril, 1870
Hippocampus taeniops Fowler, 1904
Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker, 1852
Hippocampus valentini Bleeker, 1859
Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1852
Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1853
Hippocampus comes Kaup, 1856
Hippocampus comes Bleeker, 1856
Hippocampus comes Kner, 1867
Hippocampus melanospilos Dumeril, 1870
Hippocampus guttulatus Gunther, 1870
Hippocampus guttulatus Day, 1888
Hippocampus guttulatus Reuvens, 1894
Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan and Snyder, 1901
Hippocampus comes Vaillant, 1904
Hippocampus tristis Castelnau, 1872
Hippocampus kuda Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Hippocampus aterrimus Franz, 1910
Hippocampus kuda Seale, 1910
Hippocampus guttulatus Gunther, 1910
Hippocampus guttulatus Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911
Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan, 1913
Hippocampus guttulatus Pietschmann, 1913
Hippocamphus kuda Bleeker, 1852
(Misspelling)
Hippocampus aterrimus Jordan & Snyder, 1902
Hippocampus hilonis Jordan & Evermann, 1903
Hippocampus horai Duncker, 1926
Hippocampus kuda multiannularis Raj, 1941
Hippocampus moluccensis Bleeker, 1852

Common Name (s)
• Spotted Seahorse (English)
• Sea Horse (English)
• Godamas
• Kuthirameen
• Kadal kuthirai
• Jalghodo
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Highly valued species in traditional Chinese medicine, Ornamental fish)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Prey:  Minute organisms
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 1996)
• East Coast, Coromandel INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• INDONESIA
• PAKISTAN
• SINGAPORE
• THAILAND
• BANGLADESH
• MYANMAR
• SRI LANKA
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • AlHassan, LAJ and AlBadri, HEM (1986) First record of some fishes from Khor Al-Zubair, Khor Abdullah, and Shatt Al-Arab, Basrah, Iraq Cybium 10(3) 295-297 Available at - ZOOR:ZOOR12300040248
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Garpe, KC and Ohman, MC (2003) Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island marine park Tanzania fish habitat interactions Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 498 191-211 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1922) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 4 410 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murugan, A; Dhanya, S; Rajagopal, S and Balasubramanian, T (2008) Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast Current Science 95 (2) 253-260 Available at - http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252008/253.pdf
  • Lourie, SA; Foster, SJ; Cooper, EWT and Vincent, ACJ (2004) A guide to the identification of Seahorses Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund. 1-114 Available at - http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajasegar, M and Sendhilkumar, R (2009) Finfish Resources of Karaikal,South East Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1 (4) 330-332 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1%284%2909/13.pdf
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/March/o198526iii09166-169.pdf
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-14

Back to Search