Epinephelus corallicola   (Valenciennes,  1828) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 43-49 cm.

Weight: 1-2 kg.

Color: In alcohol specimens pale brown, head, body and fins covered with dark spots, smaller and more numerous the older the specimen, two or three more or less distinct large dark brown blotches on the dorsal line at the base of the fin, and another behind the latter on the caudal peduncle, sometimes continued downwards as very faint dark crossbands. All the fins with a whitish edge.

Height 3, 3.7-3.8 in length with caudal. Head 2.3-2.4, 2.9-3 in length with caudal. Eye about 6, equal to or somewhat more than interorbital space and somewhat less than snout. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary extending to below posterior border of eye, the width of its distal extremity 1.3-1.4 in eye. Teeth in rather broad bands, at least in three series on the sides of the lower jaw. Outer row of fixed teeth small, canines moderate or strong. Gillrakers short, 8 to 9 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Praeoperculum finely serrated behind, its angle obtusely rounded, with a few broad and very blunt spines. Opercular spines nearly equidistant, the lower not farther back than the upper. Opercular flap pointed. Head nearly entirely covered with cycloid scales. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, fourth and fifth spine equal, almost as long as longest soft dorsal rays and three times in head, considerably longer than last dorsal spine. Second anal spine stronger and somewhat longer than third, much shorter than longest soft anal rays and about equal to second or to third dorsal spine. Pectorals equal to postorbital part of head, ventrals three fourths of eye-diameter shorter. Caudal rounded. Scales cycloid above lateral line and partly below it, ctenoid in small specimens. Head profile long and flat, spots more widely spaced than the other two at a given size, becoming more numerous and widely spaced with growth. Closely resembles E. howlandi and E. macrospilos, but has more widely spaced spots on a light grayish-green to brown background, a longer flatter head profile, and more lateral line scales.

Protogynous, fertilization external, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Serranus corallicola Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus miliaris Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus altivelioides Bleeker, 1849
Serranus macrospilos Bleeker, 1855
Epinephelus altivelioides Bleeker, 1865
Serranus altivelioides Kner, 1867
Epinephelus macrospilus Bleeker, 1876
Serranus howlandi Gunther, 1875
Serranus corallicola Day, 1888
Serranus corallicola Macleay, 1881
Epinephelus corallicola Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus corallicola Jordan and Seale, 1906
Epinephelus corallicola Seale, 1906
Serranus corallicola Fowler, 1928
Epinephelus corallicola Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Epinephelus macrospilos Smith, 1949
Epinephelus tauvina (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus altivelioides Bleeker, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Serranus corallicola Valenciennes, 1828
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Coral Grouper (English)
• Duskyfin Grouper (English)
• Goudarufana
• Poochachammam
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Ornamental fish)
(The greatest threat to Epinephelus corallicola is overfishing by the life reef food fish trade and small-scale commercial fishers. Global warming may affect coral reef habitat, providing a second level of threat.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3536/1/Special_Publication_No_72.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-06-14

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