Epinephelus fario   (Thunberg,  1793) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Size: 265 mm.

Color: Brown, slightly paler below with several blackish spots on head and body. Dorsal brownish with dark markings. Anal and ventral light brownish with brown spots. Pectoral light brownish with dark spots. Caudal brownish with indistinct spots.

Head 2.6 in standard length, 3.3 in total length. Depth of body 3 in standard length, 3.8 in total length. Eye diameter 5.8 in head, 1.3 in snout and about 0.9 in interorbital space. Maxillary reaching to below hind border of eye. Upper jaw with slender teeth in several series, wider and longer anteriorly, inner rows of teeth depressible, a pair of canines in front; lower jaw with three or four rows of depressible teeth and a pair of short canines in front. Bands of smaller teeth on vomer and palatines. Hind margin of preopercle finely serrated. Pectoral fin equal to or slightly shorter than postorbital part of head, ventral fin slightly shorter than half length of head. Third and fourth dorsal fin spine longest, equal to snout and eye together.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: XI, 17; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: III, 8; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 16; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: I, 5; number of scale rows along the midside of body from the upper corner of operculum to the midbase of caudal fin in the absence of lateral line: 115; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 16+1+46.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Perca fario Thunberg, 1972
Epinephelus fario Munro, 1955

Common Name (s)
• Fullichammam
• Trout Reef Cod (English)
• Vekhru
Economic Importance and Threats



• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Suppa, M; Suebsin, S; Suri, V and Songsirikul, T (1997) Checklist of fishes in Thailand Office of Environmental Policy and Planning 1-353 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-24

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