Epinephelus merra   Bloch,  1793 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Serranidae

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Description
Size: 31-32 cm.

Weight: 1-2 kg.

Height 2.7-3.4, 3.4-4 in length with caudal. Head 2.3, 2.8-3 in length with caudal. Eye 5-5.4, slightly less than rather pointed snout. interorbital space 1.5-2 in eye. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary beyond posterior border of eye, its width at distal extremity 1.5-1.8 in eye. Praeopercular border rounded, slightly produced, serrated behind, the serrae at the angle coarser and longer. Middle opercular spine somewhat nearer lower than upper, the lower somewhat farther back than the upper. Teeth in rather narrow bands, in two series in the lower jaw, the inner row of hinged teeth much longer than the outer row of fixed teeth. Canines moderate, 11 and 3 or 4 rudiments in front in lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, third and fourth spine the longest, somewhat more or less than 2.5 in head, a little shorter than longest soft dorsal rays. Second anal spine as long as or a little longer than third spine, as long as third dorsal spine and much shorter than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals as long as or slightly shorter than postorbital part of head. Ventrals equal to distance between eye and point of middle opercular spine. Caudal feebly rounded. Scales of head cycloid, those of body ciliated. Head, body and fins covered with light brown spots, separated by a honeycombed network of light lines, some of the spots being darker may form crossbars on the body. one to three blackish blotches on the back at the base of the caudal and another on caudal peduncle mat be present. The light lines of the network may be restricted to the points of the corners of the polygonal meshes, in which case the body is covered with light points. The dorsal spine are sometimes white at tip, followed by a black spot below. A series of about five darker diagonal bands, each two to five hexagons wide, superimposed on sides and radiating from eye; hexagons on sides may coalesce into short rows.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793
(Senior synonym)
Cephalopholis merra (Bloch, 1793)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus megachir (non Richardson, 1846)
(Misapplied name)
Serranus hexagonatus Day, 1870
Serranus merra (Bloch, 1793)
(Senior synonym)
Serranus merra Day, 1875
Holocentrus hexagonatus Bloch, 1801
Holocentrus merra Lacepede, 1802
Serranus merra Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus hexagonatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus nigriceps Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus confertus Bennett, 1830
Serranus merra Richardson, 1842
Serranus hexagonatus Richardson, 1844
Perca hexagonata Forster, 1844
Serranus confertus Bleeker, 1849
Serranus hexagonatus Cantor, 1850
Serranus hexagonatus Bleeker, 1854
Serranus stellans Bleeker, 1856
Serranus hexagonatus Gunther, 1859
Serranus merra Kaup, 1863
Serranus hexagonatus Kner, 1867
Epinephelus stellans Bleeker, 1876
Serranus hexagonatus Gunther, 1875
Serranus merra Macley, 1878
Serranus hexagonatus Steindachner and Doderlein, 1883
Serranus hexagonatus Perugia, 1889
Epinephelus merra Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus mera Waite, 1899
Epinephelus hexagonatus Seale, 1901
Epinephelus merra Steindachner, 1901
Epinephelus merra Steindachner, 1906
Epinephelus stellans Jordan and Seale, 1906
Epinephelus merra M. Weber, 1913
Epinephelus hexagonatus Pellegrin, 1914
Epinephelus merra Jordan and Starks, 1917
Epinephelus merra McCulloch, 1919
Epinephelus merra Fowler and Bean, 1922
Epinephelus merra Barnard, 1927
Epinephelus merra Whitley, 1927
Serranus merra Fowler, 1928
Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793
Serranus hexagonatus Day, 1878
Ephinephelus merra Bloch, 1793
(Misspelling)
Epinephalus merra Bloch, 1793
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Dwarf Spotted Grouper (English)
• Honeycomb Cod (English)
• Honeycomb Grouper (English)
• Honeycomb Rock Cod (English)
• Honeycombe Grouper (English)
• Wire Netted Reef Cod (English)
• Fullichammam (Malayalam)
• Sikkisikkifana (Mahl)
• Pulli Cullawah (Tamil)
• Bontoo (Telugu)
• Wire-netting reef-cod (English)
• Pulli kalava
• Spotted Rock Cod (English)
• Sea Bass (English)
• Salai
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, public aquariums. Marketed fresh or frozen, Ornamental fish
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
(Epinephelus merra is of importance in artisanal fisheries because of its abundance in shallow water. It is caught with handlines, traps and spear.)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Crustaceans (primarily crab) and fishes
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll (Lat: 8) (Long: 71) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• MYANMAR
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Gujarat, Okha Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Adatra Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Hanumandandi Reef INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Island (Lat: 10.56) (Long: 72.95) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island (Lat: 11.08) (Long: 72.75) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Karnataka, Netrani Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Tamil Nadu, Keelakarai INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Kerala INDIA

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