Epinephelus summana   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 34-52 cm.

Weight: 3-4 kg.

Color: Generally dark olive-brown to dark brownish gray with large pale blotches (most larger than the eye) and numerous small white spots overlying this pattern. Fins covered with small white spots, except for pectoral fins where the white spots are confined to the base.

Height 2.8-3, 3.4-3.6 in length with caudal. Head 2.2-2.5, 2.7-3 in length with caudal. Eye 4.5-5, as long as or a little shorter than snout. Interorbital space one half or three fourths of diameter of eye. Mouth oblique, maxillary reaching to below posterior half of eye, its width at its distal extremity 1.8-1.9 in diameter of eye. Praeoperculum rounded, rather coarsely serrated, the serrae at angle not enlarged. Middle opercular spine nearer to lower not farther back than upper, opercular flap obtuse, its upper border very convex. Teeth in rather borad bands, in two series on the sides of the mandibles, depressible teeth long, especially those near symphysis of upper jaw. Canines strong but short. Gillrakers rather short, 9 and 2 or 3 rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals. Third or third and fourth spine longest, as long as longest soft dorsal rays and one third of head. Last dorsal spine two third or three fourths of longest spine. Second anal spine much stronger and somewhat longer than third, almost as long as soft anal rays and as longest dorsal spine. Pectorals nearly as long as head without snout, ventrals slightly less than postorbital part of head, Caudal rounded. Scales mostly ciliated, those of head cycloid, maxillaries naked. Body robust. Serrae at the angle of the preopercle slightly enlarged, the upper edge of the operculum strongly convex. Posterior nostril of adults vertically elongate. Very similar to Epinephelus ongus which has longer pectoral fins, and a narrow white margin with broad blackish submarginal band on the median fins, which are absent or poorly developed in Epinephelus summana.

Fertilization external, oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Serranus summana Day, 1870
Perca summana Forskal, 1775
Holocentrus ongus Bloch, 1790
Bodianus summana Bloch, 1801
Pomacentrus summana Lacepede, 1802
Serranus reticulatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus summana Ruppell, 1828
Serranus summana Lefebure, 1845
Serranus bataviensis Bleeker, 1849
Serranus polystigma Bleeker, 1853
Serranus alboguttatus Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus alboguttatus Bleeker, 1863
Epinephelus bataviensis Bleeker, 1865
Serranus ongus Peters, 1865
Serranus summana Gunther, 1866
Serranus summana Kner, 1868
Epinephelus summana Bleeker, 1876
Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus Bleeker, 1876
Epinephelus tumilabris Bleeker, 1875
Epinephelus summana Sauvage, 1891
Epinephelus summana Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus summana Fowler, 1922
Epinephelus summana Whitley, 1927
Serranus summana Fowler, 1928
Epinephalus summana (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus sunmana (Forsskal, 1775)
Sebastes meleagris Peters, 1864
Serranus leucostigma Valenciennes, 1828

Common Name (s)
• Summan Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Sold fresh in local markets.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Balasubramanian, T Lagoons of India Environmental Information System Centre, Envis Publication Series: 3/2001 105 pp Available at - http://aucasmbenvis.org/files/04-Publications/lagoon%20status.pdf
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-20

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