Bothus pantherinus   (Ruppell,  1830) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 20.0-39.0 cm TL (male/unsexed).

Color: Brownish with irregular dark blotches and ocelli; the blotch behind middle of length conspicuous than others. Dorsal, anal, left pectoral and caudal with dark brown spots and streaks.

Head 3.4-3.7 in standard length, 4.0-4.4 in total length. Depth of body 1.7-1.8 in standard length, 2.0-2.2 in total length. Eye diameter 4.0-4.8 in head, 1.1-1.2 in snout and 1.0-1.4 in interorbital space. Often a small tentacle on eye. Maxillary reaching to below front border of eye or slightly behind. Teeth in two rows in jaws. Left pectoral equal to postorbital length of head plus half eye diameter, right pectoral shorter. Second and third or second to fourth rays of left pectoral filamentous in males. Base of left ventral longer than that of right, its fourth ray opposite to the first ray of right ventral. 6 or 7 short gill rakers. Locomotion is by the movement of the body or caudal fin.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: 87-98; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: 68-76; number of rays in the left pectoral fin: 10-11; number of rays in the right pectoral fin: 9-10; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: 6; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 83-86.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Platophrys pantherinus Bleeker, 1877
Rhomboidichthys pantherinus Gunther, 1862
Rhombus pantherinus Ruppell, 1830
Rhombus parvimanus Ruppell, 1828
Rhombus sumatranus Benuett, 1831
Bothus pantherinus Smith, 1949
Bothus (Platophrys) pantherinus Weber and de Beaufort, 1929
Platophrys pantherinus Day, 1878
Bothus pantherinus (Ruppell, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Passer marchionessarum Valenciennes, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Platophrys pantherinus (Ruppell, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Rhomboidichthys pantherinus (Ruppell, 1830)
(Senior synonym)
Rhombus pantherinus Ruppell, 1830
(Senior synonym)
Bothus pantherhines (Ruppell, 1830)
Bothus pantherhinus (Ruppell, 1830)
Platophrys pantherines (Ruppell, 1830)

Common Name (s)
• Leopard Flounder (English)
• Mas Madi (Mahl)
• Lammam (Malayalam)
• Palaka (Malayalam)
• Panther Flounder (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, utilized as a food fish and processed into fish meal)
Cultured:  Unknown

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates, Amphipods and polychaetes


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7.24) (Long: 93.74) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Norman, JR (1928) The flatfishes (Heterosomata) of India, with a list of the specimens in the Indian Museum. Part 1 Records of the Indian Museum ZSI 29 7 Available at - Pune University, Pune
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 1 Available at -
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at -
  • Basheeruddin, S and Nayar, KN (1961) A preliminary study of the juvenile fishes of the coastal waters off Madras city Indian Journal of Fisheries Ernakulam, Cochin-ll, India 8 (1) 169-188 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-09

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