Holocentrus spinifer   (Forsskal)  1775 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Size: 76-280 mm

Color: Uniform reddish, back darker; cheek, breast and lower sides yellowish red. Spinous dorsal reddish; other fins reddish yellow. A dusky spot present basally between first and third spines in the some specimens.

Head 2.6-2.8 in standard length, 3.3-3.5 in total length. Depth of body 2.4-2.6 in standard length, 3.0-3.3 in total length. Eye diameter 3.9-4.6 in head, 1.0-1.3 in snout and about 0.6 in interorbital space. Maxillary reaching almost to below middle of eye. Nasalia in front ending in a bifurcate spine. Preorbital with two large spines and some smaller spines. Postorbital serrated. Preopercular spine reaching behind gill opening, as long as snout. Opercular bones serrated, upper opercular spine slightly longer than lower. Third dorsal spine longest, about twice eye diameter; posterior spine gradually decreasing in length to the last measuring half eye diameter. First anal spine minute; third longest, equal to third spine of dorsal. Ventral fin as long as pectoral fin.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: XI, 15; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: IV, 10; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 13; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: I, 7; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 42-44; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 4+1+8 ½ .

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Sciaena spinifera Forskal 1775
Holocentrum spiniferum Weber and de Beaufort 1929
Holocentrus spinifer Jones 1969

Common Name (s)
• Raverimas
• Theekaduva
• Kallalam
Economic Importance and Threats



• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 1980)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 1980)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 1980)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Shehata, SMA (1993) Notes on the food and feeding habits of the spiny squirrel fish Holocentrus spinifer (Forskal) (Holocentridae) of north-western Saudi Arabia, Red Sea Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology 10 61-79 Available at - ZOOR13000018882
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org

Page last updated on:2009-10-30

Back to Search