Himantura uarnak   (Gmelin,  1789) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 18cm - 200 cm WD

Max. published weight: 120.0 kg

Color: Cream to yellow. The tail is striped with brown and yellowish white

This disc-shaped stingray is wider than it is long. The snout is angular with a sharp point. The mouth which bears blunt teeth arranged like pavement in rows is long and undulated with a transverse series of four fleshy papillae on its floor. The body, except for a wide band of closely spaced tubercles on the middle of the back, is naked and smooth. There is no dorsal fin. The pelvic fins are small and rounded are and all but fused to the larger pectoral fins. The cylindrical, whip-like tail is 2.6 to 3.0 times longer than the disc and has one to three stout spines near its base. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0.

Dioecism, internal fertilization, bearers, exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures. Distinct pairing with embrace. Bears 3 to 5 young in the summer. Size at birth about 21-28 cm WD.

Synonym (s)
Raja uarnak Forsskal, 1775
Trygon ellioti Blyth, 1861
Dasyatis favus (non Annandale, 1909)
(Misapplied name)
Dasyatis gerrardi (non Gray, 1851)
(Misapplied name)
Dasyatis jenkinsii (non Annandale, 1909)
(Misapplied name)
Dasyatis uarnak (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Dasybatus uarnak (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Himantura gerrardi (non Gray, 1851)
(Misapplied name)
Himantura punctata (Gunther, 1870)
(junior synonym)
Himantura toshi (non Whitley, 1939)
(Misapplied name)
Himantura uarnak (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Raja sephen uarnak Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Trygon gerrardi (non Gray, 1851)
(Misapplied name)
Trygon punctata Gunther, 1870
(Junior synonym)
Trygon uarnak (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Honeycomb Stingray (English)
• Banded Whip Tail Sting Ray (English)
• Spotted Stingray (English)
• Honeycombed stingray (English )
• Leopard stingray (English)
• Marbled sting ray (English)
• Boor (Gujarati)
• Tarabla (Gujarati)
• Warkhol Patari (Gujarati)
• Belya (Kannada)
• Madi (Mahl)
• Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Bhatya (Marathi)
• Waghya-pakat (Marathi)
• Whaghya pakat (Marathi)
• Sankush (Oriya)
• Shankar (Oriya)
• Puli-tenke (Telugu)
• Pulli-Thirukkai (Telugu)
• Sona-kah-tirike (Telugu)
• Baghua Sankucha
• Coachwhip Ray (English)
• Honeycomb (English)
• Honeycomb Ray (English)
• Honeycomb Whipray (English)
• Leopard Ray (English)
• Longtail Ray (English)
• Longtail Stingray (English)
• Longtailed Ray (English)
• Reticulate Whip Ray (English)
• Reticulated Whipray (English)
• Whiptail Ray (English)
• Whiptail Stingray (English)
• Manal thirukkai
• Sona-Kah-Tirike (Tamil)
• Marbled String Ray (English)
• Bur
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance, Dangers
(Popular angling fish, gamefish, used in Chinese medicine, tail is used as a decorative item, utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage.
Due to the slow reproductive rate, their removal may disturb the balance in the ecosystem.
Threats:  Anthropogenic

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Bivalves, crabs, shrimps, marine worms, small fishes, molluscs (Squids, gastropods and jellyfishes), crustaceans (Solenocera spp, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Nematopalaemon tenuipes),
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Gulf of Oman
• Red Sea
• Arabian Sea
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 2002-2007)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 33 mts)
• North West Coast INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Thangachimadam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Pauly, D and Palomares, ML (1878) Shrimp consumption by fish in Kuwait waters: A methodology, preliminary results and their implications for managemant and research Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 101-125 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Cliff, G (1995) Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. 8. The great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran (Ruppell) South African Journal of Marine Science 15 105-114 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kuronuma, K and Abe, Y (1986) Fishes of the Arabian Gulf Fishes of the Arabian Gulf 1-356 Available at - ZOOR12500001320
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Mohanraj, G; Batcha, TH and Rajapackiam, S (2010) Ray fishery by trawlers off Chennai and some aspects of biology of the scaly whipray Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin 52(1) 92-95 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5841/1/12._Sho.pdf
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3454/1/3.pdf
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6060/
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Coastal Fishery Resources in Countries Bordering Indian Ocean Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-17

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