Himantura gerrardi   (Gray,  1851) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Size: 22-42 cm disc width; 200 cm TL (male)

Color: Dorsal side of the disc light brown with white spots in the distal quarter of the disc (in adults) and no spots in small fish. Pelvic fins with some white spots and white distal margins. Tail with two lines of white spots up to sting insertion and banded after, with dark bands broader than white ones. Ventral side of the disc white. Ventral side of the tail white upto sting insertion and banded after.

Disc rhomboid, its width more than 1.05 times the length. Length of eye and spiracle 2.3 times in preorbital snout length. Interorbital space broad. Mouth small, snout tip to nasal flap distal margin distance 1.5 times mouth width, with prominent labial furrows. Internasal flap sqaure with a small lobe in the middle. Nostrils relatively long, 2.5 times mouth width. Broad band of denticles in mid-disc with 1-4 pearl thorns in the midline. Pelvic fins small. Tail very long, more than twice the disc length. Skin folds absent. Sting absent.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Synonym (s)
Dasyatis gerrardi (Gray, 1851)
Dasyatis gerrardi (Gray, 1851)
(Senior synonym)
Dasyatis jenkinsii (non Annandale, 1909)
Dasyatis jenkinsii (non Annandale, 1909)
(Misapplied name)
Himantura gerrardii (Gray, 1851)
Himantura gerrardii (Gray, 1851)
(Senior synonym)
Trygon gerrardi Gray, 1851
Trygon gerrardi Gray, 1851
(Senior synonym)
Trygon liocephalus Klunzinger, 1871
(Senior synonym)
Trygon liocephalus Klunzinger, 1871

Common Name (s)
• Sharpnose Stingray (English)
• Whipray (English)
• Bluntnose Whiptail Ray (English)
• Bluntnose Whip Ray (English)
• Banded Whiptail Ray (English)
• Sharpnose Whipray (English)
• Whitespotted Whipray (English)
• Gerrard's Sting Ray (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish. Important food fish, the skin and flesh are dried or used to produce leather for purses and bags.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Bottom crustaceans including shrimp, crabs and small lobsters
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• SRI LANKA (Record: 10/1991-12/1993)
• Red Sea
• North West Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at - http://www.iobis.org/
  • Compagno, LJV; Last, PR; Stevens, JD and MNR, Alava (2005) Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes CSIRO Marine Laboratories 104 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Cliff, G (1995) Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. 8. The great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran (Ruppell) South African Journal of Marine Science 15 105-114 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sujatha, K (2002) Batoid fishes off Visakhapatnam, north east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 155-162 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Moron, J; Bertrand, B and Last, P (1998) A check-list of sharks and rays of western Sri Lanka Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 40(1&2) 142-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-10-10

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