Parapercis quadrispinosa   (Weber,  1913) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Pinguipedidae

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Description
Size: 17 cm.

Color: In preserved specimens brownish above, lighter below and n side. 10 dark brown cross bars on sides and belly, indistinctly bordered by lighter, the first through pectoral base, which has a white spot in the middle, the second below origin of dorsal, the last through caudal peduncle at base of caudal. The dark brown color of the back descends above each cross bar, the demarcation between this color and the lighter sides forming a festooned line. Head with large black spots above. Lips light, barred vertically with about three brown bands. A large dark blotch below eye and another near the rounded angle of the preopercle, more or less connected with a blotch at the infero-posterior border of the eye, these blotches more or less continued as transverse bands on throat and on interopercle. Another less distinct dark blotch on opercle. A rows of almost black spots at the basal parts of the spinous and the soft dorsal, last named also with a median and a sub terminal row of somewhat lighter and smaller spots. Anal light, each ray with a sub terminal dark spot. Ventrals and pectorals light. Caudal light in the middle, the base, the sides and a sub terminal hind border consisting of dark, almost black, spots.

Height 6.6, 7.8 in length with caudal. Head 3.5, 4.1 in length with caudal. Eyes 4.5, 1.4 in snout, and rather close together, the inter orbital space 2.6 in eye. Mouth somewhat oblique, lower jaw slightly projecting. Lips thick. Maxillary reaching to below front border of eye. A band of villi form teeth anteriorly in both jaws, that in the lower jaw narrower than that in the upper jaw and continued laterally as a row of larger pointed and somewhat curved teeth, still larger ones, as caninoids, in front of the band near symphysis. In the upper jaw a similar row of caninoid teeth in front of the band. Vomer with a band of minute villiform teeth. Palatines toothless. Anterior nostrils with a short posterior flap. Scales ctenoid, cycloid on breast and belly, before dorsal where there are about 11 rows of scales, and on head. About 15 transverse rows of scales on the cheeks, leaving a narrow posterior and inferior preopercular limb naked. Opercle with one strong spine. Second and third dorsal spines sud equal, slightly less than eye and about twice as long as first and fourth spines. First dorsal ray much longer than spines, the rays slightly increasing in length posteriorly to about the 8th which equals snout and half eye, then decreasing again to the last. Anal similar to dorsal, but shorter. Pectorals equal to head without snout, ventrals half length of snout longer. Caudal slightly rounded.


Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Bodianus tetracanthus Lacepede, 1802
Percis tetracanthus Bleeker, 1853
Percis tetracanthus Gunther, 1860
Percis tetracanthus Kner and Steindachner, 1866
Percis tetracanthus Gunther, 1876
Percis tetracanthus Alcock, 1896
Percis tetracanthus Garman, 1903
Parapercis tetracanthus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Parapercis tetracanthus Jordan and Richardson, 1908
Parapercis clathrata Ogilby, 1911
Parapercis tetracanthus Snyder, 1912
Percis quadrispinous M. Weber, 1913
Parapercis tetracanthus Fowler, 1928
Parapercis quadrispinosa Herre, 1934
Parapercis clathrata Martin and Montalban, 1935
Parapercis quadrispinosus (Weber, 1913)
Parapercis quadrispinosa De Beaufort, 1951
Percis quadrispinosus Weber, 1913

Common Name (s)
• Sudung
• Valakka
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Ornamental fish
)

Ecology

Biogeography


• INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Beaufort, LF and Chapman, WM (1951) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A. J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 9 484 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1866/1/Article_04.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-06-02

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