Plectropomus maculatus   (Bloch,  1790) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 100.0 cm SL.

Max. weight reported: 25.0 kg.

Color: Reddish brown, lighter below with dark brown ocelli on head and body. Vertical fins pale yellowish, covered with small dark brown ocelli, soft dorsal and caudal with narrow white distal margin. Pectoral and ventral pale yellowish with brown ocelli at their bases.

Head 2.9 in standard length, 3.6 in total length. Depth of body 3.4 in standard length, 4.2 in total length. Eye diameter 6.5-6.8 in head, about 1.7-1.9 in snout and 1.4-1.5 in interorbital space. Mouth oblique, maxillary reaching to below hind border of eye. Intermaxillary with a band of cardiform teeth, a pair of canines near symphysis; lower jaw with two unequal series of teeth, a pair of short canines in front and three canines laterally on each side; the inner series in both jaws depressible. Vomer and palatines with slender teeth. Three antrorse spines on lower border of preoperculum. Third or fourth dorsal fin spine longest, about twice eye diameter. Anal and ventral fin spines slender. Pectoral fin less than half length of head. Ventral fin equal to pectoral. Soft dorsal and anal fin obtusely rounded.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: VII, 12; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: III, 8; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 14; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: I, 5; number of scale rows along the midside of body from the upper corner of operculum to the midbase of caudal fin in the absence of lateral line: 110; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 20+58.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Bodianus maculatus Bloch, 1790
Plectropoma maculatum Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Plectropomus leopardus Munro, 1955
Plectropomus maculatus Munro, 1955
Bodianus maculatus Bloch, 1790
(Senior synonym)
Plectropoma maculatum (Bloch, 1790)

Common Name (s)
• Spotted Coral Grouper (English)
• Roving Grouper (English)
• Gorang (Mahl)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish. Commonly used for food. Its flesh is delicate and well appreciated.
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(It is heavily fished in the Southeast Asian part of its range, but there is very little information.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, crustaceans and squids
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ohman, M; Rajasuriya, A and Olafsson, E (1997) Reef fish assemblages in north western Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises Enviornmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 49 45-61
  • Abu-Zinada, NY (1998) Observations on two larval cestodes from Red Sea fishes at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 46(2) 193-197 Available at - ZOOR13700004098
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-10-17

Back to Search