Pomacanthodes imperator   (Bloch,  1787) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Size: 42-192 mm

Color: Purplish brown; a black cross bar from interorbital space continued narrowly to hind border of preoperculum; a black area from chest to above pectoral extending to hind border of operculum; 18-24 yellow bands obliquely upwards and backwards from the black area extending on to dorsal, base of caudal and anal fin. General body color extending on to dorsal but becoming yellowish distally; soft dorsal with a submarginal dark line. Anal dark violet with yellowish bands. Pectoral dark brown becoming pale distally. Ventral dark brown.

Head 3.3-3.9 in standard length, 4.0-4.7 in total length. Depth of body 1.80-1.95 in standard length, 2.10-2.25 in total length. Eye diameter 3.7-4.2 in head, 1.5-1.7 in snout and 1.1-1.3 in convex interorbital space. Preoperculum finely serrated, preopercular spine longer than diameter of eye. A few accessory scales on anterior part of body. Lateral line strongly arched. Dorsal spines increasing in length to the last, it being 1.5-1.6 in head, soft dorsal higher. Third anal fin spine longer than the other two. Pectoral fin slightly shorter than head. Ventral fin equal to or longer than head.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: XIV, 20-21; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: III, 19-21; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 16-17; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: I, 5.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Chaetodon imperator Bloch, 1787
Holacanthus imperator Day, 1878
Holacanthus nicobariensis Day, 1878
Pomacanthodes imperator Munro, 1955
Pomacanthus (Pomacanthodes) imperator Weber and de Beaufort, 1936

Common Name (s)
• Handupholimas
• Harabalukokkamas
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquarium, Ornamental fish)



• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Toman Gerd (1977) Digenetic trematode of marine teleost fishes from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. 1. Family Angiodictyidae Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Instituto de Biologia Publicaciones Especiales 4 335-341 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3536/1/Special_Publication_No_72.pdf
  • Murty, VS (2001) Ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep Bulletins of the Geological Survey of India 56 103-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8574/1/Murty.pdf
  • Radhakrisnan, EV; Kathirvel, M; Devarajan, K; Vijayakumaran, M; Poovannan, P; Thangavelu, R; Hameed, KS; Sankaralingam, S; Ramakrishnan, A and Thangar, VS (1989) An unusual congregation of organisms in the catches off Kovalam, Madras Marine fisheries information service ICAR 99 16-18 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-18

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