Pranesus pinguis   (Lacepede,  1803) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Size: 23-107 mm

Color: Whitish with a silvery lateral stripe edged above with dark. Tip of snout and ventral border of lower jaw dark. Scale pockets above lateral band with dark greenish pigments and midline of the same color before dorsal. Base of pectoral, dorsal and anal with blackish pigments. Fins hyaline. Distal third of pectoral sometimes slightly dusky.

Body slightly compressed. Head 3.6-3.9 in standard length, 4.4-4.9 in total length. Depth of body 4.6-5.2 in standard length, 5.7-6.4 in total length. Eye diameter 2.5-2.9 in head, about 0.7 in snout and equal to or more or less than interorbital space. Maxilla reaching to a vertical through front edge of pupil. Mandible not elevated posteriorly. Ascending premaxillary process short, not extending in interorbital space. Hind preopercle margin with distinct concavity just above lower corner. Narrow band of minute teeth in jaws, vomer, palatines and a few teeth on pterygoid. Origin of first dorsal fin 2-3 scales behind level of vent, nearer to base of caudal fin than to front border of eye and opposite to 15th or 16th scale. Pectoral fin 5.6-6.3 in total length. Vent between tips of pelvic fins. First dorsal fin separated by 6-8 scales from second dorsal. Scales clearly embedded, hind margin smooth.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: V-VI; number of spines and rays in the second dorsal fin: I, i, 8-9; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: I, i, 13-15; number of rays in the pectoral fin: i, 15-16; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: I, 5; number of scale rows along the midside of body from the upper corner of operculum to the midbase of caudal fin in the absence of lateral line: 41-44; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 6; number of scales along the dorsal mid-line of the head and back, anterior to the origin of dorsal fin: 18-19; gill raker count: 5-6+1+18-20.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Atherina pinguis Lacepede, 1803
Allanetta forskali Munro, 1955
Atherina forskali Weber and de Beaufort, 1922
Atherina forskalii Day, 1878
Hypsetia pinguis Smith, 1949
Praneus pinguis Smith, 1965

Common Name (s)
• Fitham
• Tholiyan
Economic Importance and Threats



• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 10/1986-03/1987)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Pillai, PP; Mohan, RSL; Murty, VS and Gopakumar, G (1989) Live-bait resources and development Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 39-45 Available at -
  • Proceeding of the national conference on tunas (1989) Present status of tuna fisheries of Lakshadweep Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-07-21

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