Prognichthys gibbifrons   (Valenciennes,  1847) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: FAO

Size: Max length 19.5 cm SL (male/unsexed)

Color: Greenish brown above, whitish below. Dorsal light grayish, 4th to 8th rays slightly darker distally. Pectoral dusky, more so posteriorly; 3-4 lower rays and extremities of upper 3 rays lighter. Ventral dark grey except first and last ray which are lighter; anal clear, caudal dusky.

Head 4.2 in standard length, 5.5 in total length. Depth of body 5.1 in standard length, 6.7 in total length. Breadth of body less than 1.3 in its depth. Eye diameter 3 in head, about 0.6 in snout and 1.2 in interorbital space. Teeth simple in jaws and none on the palatines. 25 predorsal scales. Pectoral fin reaching to end of the dorsal fin. Ventral fin 1 ½ eye diameter longer than head, reaching to the caudal peduncle and inserted nearer to operculum than to base of caudal fin. Anal fin base about 1.4 in base of dorsal fin, the first ray of anal fin below 4th dorsal ray.
Number of spines and rays in the dorsal fin: 11; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: 9; number of rays in the pectoral fin: iv, 13; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: 6; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 46; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 7 ½ +1+2 ½; gill raker count: 7+19.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Exocoetus gibbifrons Valenciennes, 1847
(Senior synonym)
Exocoetus gibbifrons Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1846
Prognichthys gibbifrons Bruun, 1935

Common Name (s)
• Parava (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Pelagic


• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -

Page last updated on:2010-04-08

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