Sphyraena barracuda   (Edwards,  1771) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: Max length 200 cm TL (male/unsexed); common length 140 cm TL (male/unsexed).

Max. weight reported: 50.0 kg.

Color: Deep green to steel grey above, sometimes with a purplish tinge, sides mostly silvery, becoming abruptly white on ventral surface. Small individuals with 18 to 22 oblique dark bars on back (faint to absent in adults); adults usually with several to many scattered inky blotches on hind part of body below lateral line. Second dorsal, anal and caudal fins violet to blackish with whitish tips.

Head 3.0-3.2 in standard length, 3.7-3.8 in total length. Depth of body 6.4-6.9 in standard length, 8.2-8.4 in total length. Eye diameter 5.9-7.7 in head, 2.6-3.5 in snout and 1.3-2.0 in slightly concave (young) to flattish (adult) interorbital space. Maxillary reaching to below front edge or first third of eye, 2.2-2.3 in head. Angle of preopercle rounded. Operculum with two flat spines. Upper jaw with a series of small teeth and a pair of canines anteriorly on each side. Lower jaw with a series of vertical teeth, those behind larger and a canine at symphysis. Palatines with a row of 6-8 compressed canines. No elongate gill raker at angle of first gill arch, lower part of arch rough or with small spinules in juveniles. Origin of first dorsal fin above tip of pectoral fins, behind origin of ventral fins and midway between tip of snout and end of base of second dorsal fin or nearer to the latter. Ventral fin nearer to anal fin than to tip of snout. Base of second dorsal fin 2.1-2.2 in interdorsal distance. Pectoral fin slightly shorter than postorbital part of head.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: V; number of spines and rays in the second dorsal fin: I, 9; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: I, 8; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 11-12; number of spines and rays in the ventral fins: I, 5; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 79-83; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 10-11+1+14-15.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Esox barracuda Walbum, 1792
Sphyraena barracuda Talwar and Kacker, 1984
Sphyraena commersonii Day, 1876
Agrioposphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1792)
(Junior synonym)
Esox barracuda Edwards, 1771
(Senior synonym)
Esox barracuda Walbaum, 1792
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771)
(Senior synonym)
Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1752)
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena becuna Lacepede, 1803
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena commersonii Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena dussumieri Valenciennes, 1831
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena picuda Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Sphyraena sphyraena picuda Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Esox barracuda Walbaum, 1794
Agrioposphyraena barracuda Smith, 1956
Sphyraena barracuda Jones, 1969
Sphyraena commersonii Day, 1878
Sphyraena picuda Weber and de Beaufort, 1922
Sphyraena sphyraena var. picuda Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Sphyraena baracuda (Walbaum, 1792)
Syphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1792)

Common Name (s)
• Great Barracuda (English)
• Commersons Sea Pike (English)
• Farutholi (Mahl)
• Thiruthakkadayan (Malayalam)
• Ooli
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium, gamefish. Marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted, fermented or prepared as fish sauce.
Traumatogenic; reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Open Sea
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Finfish, cephalopods, squids, bony fish
Predator:  Coryphaena hippurus


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Gulf of Oman
• East Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Thoothukkudi coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 42-100 mts)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)

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Page last updated on:2011-10-14

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