Thalassoma hardwicki   (Bennett,  1830) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service

Size: 35-143 mm

Color: In preserved specimens grey, reddish olive or blue above, margaritaceous below. Head lighter or darker violet 5 generally lighter violet or blue broad bands, bordered by a narrow dark violet line. The two anterior ones from anterior border of eye more or less club-shaped, widening anteriorly. The first to middle of upper jaw, the second to corner of mouth. From the posterior three bands the uppermost is short, beginning in the scaly patch on operculum a short way along hind border of operculum. The two following run more or less parallel to each other backwards from behind eye to middle and lower end of opercular hind border, where they are generally somewhat curved backwards. Seven dark violet transverse bands on back, tapering inferiorly. The first, often connected on back with the second and often broken into blotches interiorly, to superior part of axil of pectorals, which generally has also a dark band along its base. The second from origin of dorsal, descending to sides at some distance behind axil of pectoral. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth from base of dorsal to sides, decreasing in size posteriorly. The seventh forms a short on caudal peduncle. A light reddish longitudinal from middle of sides to middle of base of caudal. A second less distinct one parallel to it, from base of pectoral to lower caudal rays. Dorsal light reddish, with a longitudinal dark violet band, less distinct in young and here often only distinct between the three anterior spines and the last spine and anterior soft rays. Anal light yellowish, generally with a back blotch between the anterior soft rays. Pectorals dusky at tip. Ventrals light yellowish, the rays often darker.

Height 3-3.1, 3.6-3.7 in length with caudal. Head 3, 3.5 in length with caudal. Height of head 1.3 in its length. Eye 5.4-6.7, 1.6-2 in snout and 1.2-1.3 in somewhat convex inter orbital space. Mouth horizontal, protractile, its corner scarcely or not reaching to below anterior nostril. Teeth in single crowded series in both jaws, pointed, somewhat curved, the two anterior ones in the upper jaw moderate canines, the four anterior ones in the lower jaw also longer than the others. Head naked, with exception of a rounded patch of scales on upper part of operculum, consisting of 3 transverse rows, each of 1-3 scales. About 8 scales before dorsal. Dorsal spines short and slender, the first less than eye, the last about equal to eye. The membranes between the spines scarcely incised. Soft dorsal slightly rounded, much higher than spinous part, the first ray equal to snout, the last ray shorter. Origin of anal below last dorsal spine. Anal spines slender, second one longer than first and about equal to one and a half diameter of eye or somewhat longer, Soft anal similar to soft dorsal. Vertical fins with a low scaly sheath. Pectorals with the hind border slightly emarginate, half length of snout shorter than head or somewhat shorter. Ventrals somewhat pointed, scarcely less than post orbital part of head. Caudal truncate or slightly rounded in young ones, in older ones the outer rays are produced and the fin is semi-lunar, with pointed lobes.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Julis dorsalis Day, 1878
Sparus hardwicki Bennett, 1830
Julis dorsalis Quoy and Gaimard, 1834
Chlorichthys hardwickii Swainson, 1839
Julis semifasciatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839
Julis (Julis) dorsalis Bleeker, 1852
Julis (Julis) urostigma Bleeker, 1853
Julis dorsalis Bleeker, 1862
Julis dorsalis Gunther, 1866
Julis dorsalis Sauvage, 1891
Thalassoma dorsale Jordan and Snyder, 1902
Thalassoma melanochir Fowler, 1904
Thalassoma dorsale Jordan and Seale, 1907
Julis dorsale Gunther, 1909
Thalassoma dorsale Franz, 1910
Thalassoma dorsale Snyder, 1912
Thalassoma dorsale Barnard, 1927
Thalassoma hardwicke Fowler, 1928
Thalassoma hardwicke Fowler and Bean, 1928
Thalassoma hardwicke Herre, 1936
Thalassoma hardwicke Folwer, 1938
Sparus hardwickii Bennett, 1830
Thalassoma hardwicke Smith, 1949
Thalassoma hardwicki de Beaufort, 1940
Thalassoma hardwickii Balan, 1958

Common Name (s)
• Galihikkae
• Nhola
• Kuppichulam
• Hardwick's Wrasse
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Bait fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated


• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll (Lat: 8) (Long: 71) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Pillai, CSG; Gopakumar, G and Mohan, M (1991) Ichthyofauna of the intertidal reef flats of Minicoy atoll, Lakshadweep An analysis of its structure, relative abundance and food Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The marine Biological Association of India 34 74-83 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2007) Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin 54 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Beaufort, LF (1940) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A. J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 8 508 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumaran, M; Murty, VS and Lalmohan, RS (1989) Resources of ornamental fishes Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 46-64 Available at -
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2004) Community organization of reef fishes in the live coral sub-habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 51(1) 87-95 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at -
  • Ghosh, S; Ganeshamurthy, R; Balamurugan, J and Kumar, TTA (2011) Reef fishing- An off season amusement at Lakshadweep Fishing chimes 31(1) 128-130 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Silas, EG and Pillai, PP (1982) Bait fishes Resources of tunas and related species and their fisheries in the Indian Ocean, CMFRI Bulletin, 32 CMFRI 32 136-140 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-05

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