Caranx lugubris   Poey,  1860 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Length 70.0-100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Max. published weight: 17.9 kg

Color: Dark brown on sides of head and back, becoming slightly lighter below. An indistinct dark spot at upper edge of gill opening; spinous dorsal and blackish; base of soft dorsal and anal pale, lobes and distal margin blackish; pectoral grayish with dark base; ventral blackish especially towards extremity and caudal blackish.

Head 3.2-3.3 in standard length, 4.2-4.3 in total length. Depth of body 2.3 in standard length, 2.8 in total length. Dorsal profile of head steeply descending to bluntly pointed snout with slight concavity before eyes. Eye with posterior adipose lid, eye diameter 4.5-4.6 in head, 1.5-1.6 in snout and 1.3 in interorbital space. Maxillary reaching below middle of eye. A narrow band of teeth anteriorly in upper jaw with the outer series enlarged, a single series of conical teeth in lower jaw; vomer, palatines and tongue toothed. Breast completely scaled. Lateral line arched, curved part about 1 ½ in straight part beginning below about 5th dorsal ray, 31-32 scutes occupying the entire straight part of lateral line. Anterior rays of soft dorsal produced into a lobe, equal to or slightly longer than head; anterior lobe of anal shorter than that of dorsal. Pectoral fin longer than head.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: VIII; number of spines in the second dorsal fin: I, 22; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: II, I, 18; number of rays in the pectoral fin: ii, 19; number of spines and rays in the ventral fin: I, 5; number of scale rows along the lateral line: 86; gill raker count: 6+1+19.

Dioecious, external fertilization. Eggs are pelagic.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Caranx ascensionis Cuvier, 1833
(Junior synonym)
Caranx frontalis Poey, 1860
(Junior synonym)
Caranx ishikawai Wakiya, 1924
(Junior synonym)
Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860
(Senior synonym)
Caranx tenebrosus Jordan, Evermann & Wakiya, 1927
(Junior synonym)
Caranx lugubris Poey, 1861
Caranx ascensionis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833

Common Name (s)
• Black Jack (English)
• Kalufanihandi (Mahl)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish. Marketed mainly fresh, also dried or salted.
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Pelagic, Reef Associated, Open Sea
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, planktonic crustaceans


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15) (Long: 90) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at -
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1966) New records of fishes from the seas around India - Part IV Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 8(1) 163-180 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Mohan, RSL and Murty, VS (1989) Other fin-fish resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 65-72 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-10-18

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