Lithophyllon undulatum   Rehberg,  1892 (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Fungiidae

Description
Color: Colonies are usually dull green, grey or brown in color, sometimes with white margins or white centres


Colonies are attached, encrusting or laminar, unifacial. A central corallite is usually distinguishable in small colonies. The septa are loosely packed and straight (except in lobed and folded margins). The septa of low order cycles are thick and solid, those of higher orders thin and perforated. The septa of low orders are more protruding than those of higher orders. Tentacular lobes are absent. The septal margins are finely ornamented with ravel-shaped dentations. The septal sides are thinly granulated. The granulations are irregularly distributed. Septo-costae are similar to Diaseris. The stomata are clearly visible. The primary stoma is the largest; the secondary stomata are evenly distributed around it. Polyps are extended only at night.

Similar species: Lithophyllon lobata


Synonym (s)
Lithophyllon elegans (van der Horst, 1971)
Lithophyllon undulatum Rehberg, 1892
Leptoseris floriformis Gerth, 1923
(junior synonym)
Lithophyllon bistomatum Latypov, 1995
(junior synonym)
Lithophyllon levistei Nemenzo, 1971
(junior synonym)
Podabacia dispar Verrill, 1901
(junior synonym)
Podabacia elongata Ma, 1937
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata Van der Horst, 1921
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. kiiensis Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. nomaensis Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. plicata Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. setoensis Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. vanderhorsti Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)
Podabacia lobata f. varians Yabe & Sugiyama, 1932
(junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Stone-leaf Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• INDONESIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Butler Bay (Lat: 10.67) (Long: 92.58) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Ram Krishna Pur Beach (Lat: 10.71) (Long: 92.6) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Veron, JEN (2000) Corals of the world Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia 2 429 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Mondal, T; Raghunathan, C and Ramakrishna (2011) New recruitment of diverse scleractinian corals in little Andaman Islands after Tsunami Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences CSIR 40(5) 653-656 Available at - nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13076/1/IJMS%2040%285%29%20653-656.pdf

Page last updated on:2013-05-14

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