Mussa angulosa   (Pallas)  (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Mussidae

Description
Color: Usually grey, purple or green

Colonies are flat to hemispherical, phaceloid to flabello-meandroid, the latter with short valleys of up to 5 centres. Septa have tall sharp teeth. Columellae are well developed. Retracted polyps are thick and fleshy.

Sexual, brooding.

Similar species: Scolymia cubensis, which is solitary, less fleshy, and has less excavated corallites with smaller, more even teeth on the septa


Synonym (s)
Madrepora angulosa Pallas, 1766

Common Name (s)
• Spiny Flower Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act,1972)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptibility to diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Veron, JEN (2000) Corals of the world Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia 3 490 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972

Page last updated on:2013-05-21

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