Goniopora stokesi   Milne Edwards & Haime,  1851 (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Poritidae

Image copyrights: Australian Institute of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: Uniform brown or green.

Colonies are free-living or attached, hemispherical or short thick columns. Mature colonies are columnar. They may be surrounded by small, free living, roughly spherical balls, which grow into larger dome shaped colonies. The skeletal balls develop within the living tissue when still attached to the parent, and then detach to grow independently. Calices are deep, sometimes 3 or 4 mm deep, and walls are thin and perforated. In free living balls, septal structures are especially thin and loosely packed, though this condition is also reached in rapidly growing parts of attached columns. The columella is very variable. Septa are perforated and have an uneven appearance. The calices have a more ragged appearance than other Goniopora. Living polyps are about 10 cm long. Calices are 3-6 mm in diameter with high walls which have a ragged appearance. Columellae are broad and irregular. Small daughter colonies often occur imbedded in the living tissue or parent colonies. Polyps are of mixed sizes, the larger being very elongate.


Synonym (s)
Goniopora stokesi Edwards and Haime, 1851

Common Name (s)
• Anemone Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquarium trade)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Sandy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Dustfood, plankton

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Colaba INDIA (Record: 09/1997-11/1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
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  • Dhargalkar, VK; Untawale, AG and Jagtap, TG (2001) Marine macroalgal diversity along the Maharashtra coast: Past and present status Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR, CSIR 30(1) 18-24 Available at - http://hdl.handle.net/2264/402
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  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • AIMS Data Centre Available at - http://data.aims.gov.au/
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Page last updated on:2011-12-22

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