Heterocyathus aequicostatus   Milne Edwards & Haime,  1848 (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Caryophylliidae

Image copyrights: Australian institute of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: Pale brown, often with greenish oral disc.

Sometimes hermatypic. Corals are solitary, free-living, and have a flat base. They have a commensal relationship with a sipunculid worm (Aspidosiphon corallicola). The sipunculid moves the coral about on substrates and prevents it from becoming buried. Polyps are extended only at night. Polyp larvae settle initially on dead micro-molluscs which become embedded in the corallum.


Synonym (s)
Heterocyathus aequicostatus delicatus Sakakura, 1935
Heterocyathus elongatus Hu, 1987 †
Heterocyathus oblongatus Rehberg, 1892
Heterocyathus philippinensis Semper, 1872
Heterocyathus roussaeanus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848
Heterocyathus woodmasoni Alcock, 1893
Stephanoseris carthausi Felix, 1913
Stephanoseris lamellosa Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Common Name (s)
• Striped Bum Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• SEYCHELLES
• Kerala, Off Kollam (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 76.5) INDIA (Record: 1987-1989) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Coast INDIA (Record: 1987-1989)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7.24) (Long: 93.74) INDIA (Record: 1987-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 1987-1989)

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • (2001) Invertebrate zoology collections Available at - http://goode.si.edu/mcs/iz/Query.php
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Ditlev, H (1980) A field guide to the reef-building corals of the Indo-Pacific Dr. W. Backhuys, Rotterdam. 13-291 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • AIMS Data Centre Available at - http://data.aims.gov.au/
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1995) Scleractinian corals of the erstwhile Travancore Coast (Southwest of India) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The marine Biological Association of India 37 (1-2) 109-125 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/634/1/Gopi_109-125.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-02-16

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