Gymnothorax undulatus   Lacepede,  1803 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Anguilliformes
Family:Muraenidae

Image copyrights: Zubi

Description
Max length: 150 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Color: Head, body and fins covered with very large light brownish to brown blotches or vertical bars separated by narrow whitish interspaces, more or less interconnecting; corner of mouth often brownish, lower sides of head and thorax pale brownish. Large adults light brownish with irregularly sized dark blotches. Mucus pores on lower jaw and upper jaw white in small specimens.

Head 6.8-7.6, depth of body 13.5-18.5, both in total length. Tail half length of head longer than head and trunk. Eye diameter 8.8-11.2 in head, 1.4-1.7 in snout and 1.1-1.3 in interorbital space. Head 2.1-2.6 in trunk. Cleft of mouth 2.3-2.8 in head. Anterior nostrils tubular, on either side of tip of snout, posterior nostrils without raised rims, above front border of eye. A single series of teeth in jaws, those near the symphysis much longer than others; 2-3 fangs in the middle of premaxillaries; maxillaries often with an inner row of 2-3 teeth; vomer with a single series of short teeth. Dorsal fin origin on rear of head, midway between rictus and gill opening.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Echidna fascigula (non Peters, 1855)
(Misapplied)
Lycodontis undulata (Lacepede, 1803)
(Senior synonym)
Lycodontis undulatus (Lacepede, 1803)
(Senior synonym)
Muraena cancellata Richardson, 1848
(Junior synonym)
Muraenophis undulata Lacepede, 1803
(Senior synonym)
Muraenophis undulatus Lacepede, 1803
Poecilophis fascigula (non Peters, 1855)
(Misapplied)
Muraenophis undulata Lacepede, 1803
Gymnothorax undulatus Munro, 1955
Lycodontis undulatus Smith, 1962
Muraena undulata Day, 1878
Muraena (Gymnothorax) undulata Weber and de Beaufort, 1916

Common Name (s)
• Common Hawaiian Moray (English)
• Common Moray Eel (English)
• Leopard Moray (English)
• Mottled Moray (English)
• Nami Utsubo (English)
• Undulate Moray (English)
• Undulated Eel (English)
• Undulated Moray (English)
• Undulated Moray Black Barred Garfish (English)
• Aajalai (Tamil)
• Mudiveng (Mahl)
• Kadukkamalanhi (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium, used in Chinese medicine
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning. It is an aggressive species and prone to bite.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Pelagic, Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes, octopi, and crustaceans

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Red Sea
• Gulf of Oman
• PAKISTAN
• Persian Gulf
• SRI LANKA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam Camp INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Venkateswarlu, T and Rama Rao, KV (1986) Valid scientific names to Day's fish fauna of India Miscellaneous publication, occasional paper no 87 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI p 48 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Madhavi, R (1974) Digenetic trematodes from marine fishes of Waltair coast Bay of Bengal family Bucephalidae Rivista di Parassitologia 35(3) 189-200 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/ index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2005) Community organization of coral reef fishes in the rubble sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 47(1) 77-82 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2004) Community organization of reef fishes in the live coral sub-habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 51(1) 87-95 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/150/1/IJF_51_no.1_%2C2004_-_12.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1866/1/Article_04.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-10-13

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