Acropora intermedia   (Brook)  (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image copyrights: ZSI, Kolkata

Description
Color: Live coral color brown with white tips.

Colonies are arborescent, usually staghorn-like, main branches1.5-2 cm thick at the base, branchlets 5-8 cm long, 1 cm thick. Radial corallites are of mixed variety of shapes and sizes. They are evenly distributed, dimorphic : long tubular corallites with dimidiate or oblique openings interspersed with sub-immersed forms. Usually ranging from immersed to tubular, exsert with circular, nariform or dimidiate openings and thickened outer walls. Largest corallites usually dimidiate and evenly distributed. Axial cylindrical 2-3 mm thick, exsert. Axial corallites have better developed septa than those of radial corallites. Septa in 2 cycles. All corallites are strongly costate.

Broadcast spawning

Similar species: Acropora muricata and Acropora grandis may have similar growth forms but radial corallites are entirely different. This species has been stated as Acropora nobilis Veron (2000).


Synonym (s)
Madrepora intermedia Dana, 1846
Madrepora intermedia Brook, 1893

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Predator:  Butterflyfishes (Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon trifasciatus)

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• MALDIVES
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai, Mulli INDIA (Record: 09/2004-06/2005) (Depth: -(2-10) mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA (Record: 1964-1966)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.2) INDIA (Record: 03/2005-05/2005)

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Edward, JKP; Patterson, J; Venkatesh M; Mathews, G; Chellaram, C and Wilhelmsson D (2004) A field guide to stony corals (Scleractinia) of Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India SDMRI special research publication no. 4 SDMRI, Tuticorin, India 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2008) Community structure and spatial patterns of hard coral biodiversity in Kilakarai group of islands in Gulf of Mannar, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 79-86 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Raj, KD and Edward, JKP (2009) Observations on the reproduction of Acropora corals along the Tuticorin coast of the Gulf of Mannar,Southeastern India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 39(2) 219-226 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Venkataraman, K (2005) Coral reef ecosystem and the diversity of reef building corals in India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 10-24 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1967) Studies on Indian corals 5. Preliminary report on new records of Hermatypic corals of the suborder Astrocoeniinan Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 9 (2) 412-422 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1528/1/Pillai_412-422.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) The distribution of corals on a reef at Mandapam (Palk bay), S. India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 11(1&2) 62-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2007) Biodiversity and community structure of coral reefs around Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 54(3) 275-282 Available at - http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJF/article/view/6940/2673

Page last updated on:2012-02-10

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